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Edited by M. Kuijer and M.K. Bulterman

The symposium Compliance with Judgments of International Courts was held in Leiden on 7 October 1994, on the occasion of the presentation of a Liber Amicorum to Professor Henry G. Schermers. The subject, Compliance with Judgments of International Courts, was discussed by eminent speakers of the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Communities. The topic is one of great practical importance and an almost undeveloped area of jurisprudence. While most national legal orders employ centralized mechanisms for the enforcement of judgments, such mechanisms are generally lacking at the international level. This raises particular problems which were highlighted during the symposium. The contributions of individual speakers as well as the discussions during the conference are incorporated in this book. The different contexts in which the three international courts are faced with the problem of compliance, and the different experiences of the courts in regard to compliance with their judgments, provide an opportunity to compare and to learn. Discussion on a subject of such practical importance constitutes a small but valuable contribution to the development of general international law.

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Howard Charles Yourow

The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence is the first full-length monograph to treat this subject, which is of central importance to the interpretation and application of the European Convention on Human Rights. It will enrich the understanding and appreciation of judges, advocates, civil servants, scholars, researchers, students, and indeed of anyone whose life and work is affected by national and international human rights adjudication.
This thorough and learned analysis synthesizes the work of the Strasbourg judicial organs, proceeding in the light of the ongoing debates on the appropriate place of the margin doctrine in the Strasbourg jurisprudence. The author's rich conclusions add texture and perspective to the future judicial and scholarly dialogues which will no doubt continue to surround this subject matter.
The text is eminently readable, written in a clear and precise style to be appreciated by the novice and specialist alike. The newcomer to human rights and to the Convention will find it an inviting introduction to complex material; the expert will gain new and expanded insights into the development of the case law rarely to be found in this breadth and depth.

Edited by Sjef Theunis

This publication describes and analyses the role of non-governmental development organizations (NGDOs) of the Southern hemisphere. It is primarily intended as a text for interested outsiders -- such as officials of UN-organizations, politicians, civil servants and scientists -- but it will also contribute to self-knowledge and self-reflection among members of the NGO community. After a brief introduction, the reader is introduced to a substantial number of non-governmental development organizations from three continents by means of organizational portraits, written by the NGDOs themselves.
Each contribution is prefaced by a brief description of the organization, and all address the following basic subjects:- Development -- for whom, by whom? - The NGDO's objectives and strategies - Organizational structure - North-South cooperation - The NGDO's achievements - Staff motivation.

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Edited by Christiane Bourloyannis-Vrailas and Linos-Alexander Sicilianos

The persistence of human rights violations around the world clearly demonstrates the need to focus more attention on preventive action.
Consequently, international organizations are increasingly strengthening the preventive dimension of their human rights activities. Preventive mechanisms have also emerged and continue to gain ground at the national level.
These new realities, however, seem to have received little attention by the academic community. Yet they raise many important issues, which need to be further explored. The above considerations prompted the Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights to mark its twentieth anniversary by organizing an International Colloquy on the topic of the prevention of human rights violations.
The present Volume contains contributions by the participants, based on the reports they presented at the Colloquy, substantially revised and updated. It constitutes the first attempt at a systematic analysis of the subject of the prevention of human rights violations, focusing on the following five aspects: conventional regimes, non-conventional monitoring mechanisms, international commissioners and Ombudsmen, national Ombudsmen and human rights institutions and the development of a human rights culture. It closes with a theoretical synthesis of the various approaches to the prevention of human rights violations, focusing on the context, the concept and function, as well as methods and techniques of prevention.

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United Nations

Fully indexed, the 1989 edition of the Yearbook is the most comprehensive and authoritative reference publication about the work of the United Nations, other international organizations and related bodies. The book is designed not just for use by diplomats, officials and scholars but also by other researchers, writers, journalists, teachers and students.
This volume of the Yearbook details the activities of the United Nations, its many organs, agencies and programmes, working together to rekindle a new form of multilateral cooperation for a better world. It records the diverse and globe-encompassing activities of the United Nations and its enduring efforts to deal with the world's pressing concerns, particularly matters of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the settlement of regional conflicts, economic and social development, the preservation of the environment, control of drugs and narcotic substance abuse, crime prevention, adequate shelter, youth and the ageing and humanitarian assistance for refugees as well as disaster relief.

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United Nations

Fully indexed, the 1995 edition of the Yearbook is the single most current, comprehensive and authoritative reference publication about the work of the United Nations, other international organizations and related bodies. The book is designed not just for use by diplomats, officials and scholars but also by other researchers, writers, journalists, teachers and students.
The year 1995 was a remarkably eventful one for the United Nations and in the conduct of international relations. This volume of the Yearbook details the activities of the United Nations, its many organs, agencies and programmes, working together to rekindle a new form of multilateral cooperation for a better world. It records the diverse and globe-encompassing activities of the United Nations and its enduring efforts to deal with the world's pressing concerns, particularly matters of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the settlement of regional conflicts, economic and social development, the preservation of the environment, control of drugs and narcotic substance abuse, crime prevention, adequate shelter, youth and the ageing and humanitarian assistance for refugees as well as disaster relief.

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Gay J. McDougall

Across the world, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities are subjected to hate crimes, systematic discrimination and marginalization. Religious minorities have recently faced particular threat in certain regions, while in other parts of the globe identity based on race or ethnicity has been used as a basis for exclusion.

In The First United Nations Mandate on Minority Issues, Gay McDougall curates a selection of reports she produced as UN Independent Expert on Minority Issues. The collection, with her introductory analysis, reveals the challenges and opportunities faced in her attempt to highlight the plight of these oppressed communities around the world and to shape an important new mechanism for the UN’s protection of their rights.

Holding UNPOL to Account

Individual Criminal Accountability of United Nations Police Personnel

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Ai Kihara-Hunt

Ai Kihara-Hunt’s Holding UNPOL to Account: Individual Criminal Accountability of United Nations Police Personnel analyzes whether the mechanisms that address criminal accountability of United Nations police personnel serving in peace operations are effective, and if there is a problem, how it can be mitigated.
The volume reviews the obligations of States and the UN to investigate and prosecute criminal acts committed by UN police, and examines the jurisdictional and immunity issues involved. It concludes that these do not constitute legal barriers to accountability, although immunity poses some problems in practice. The principal problem appears to be the lack of political will to bring prosecutions, as well as a lack of transparency, which makes it difficult accurately to determine the scale of the problem.


Emmanuel Roucounas

This rich and remarkable volume offers an overview of the most important schools, movements and trends which make up the theoretical landscape of contemporary international law, as well as the works of over 500 authors. It moves beyond generalization and examines how the relevant literature deals with the basic issues of the international legal system, such as international obligations, legitimacy, compliance, unity and universality, the rule of law, human rights, use of force and economics. It offers insights into the addressees (the state, international organizations, individuals and other private persons), and the construction of international law, including law-making, the relationship between norms, and interpretation. Moreover, it widens the discourse by addressing old, yet enduring, as well as new concerns about the functioning of the international legal system, and presents views of non-international lawyers and political scientists regarding that system. It is a valuable analysis for researchers, students, and practitioners.