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Edited by Westerweel

This volume deals with the interrelation between English and Dutch culture as it emerged in the field of the emblem and the emblem book in the 16th and 17th centuries. The traffic of emblems was mostly from the Low Countries to England. The very first printed English emblem book, by Geffrey Whitney, was printed in Leiden in 1586. One of the last English emblem books to be published in the 17th century, by Philip Ayres (1683) goes straight back to the Dutch love emblem tradition (Heinsius, Vaenius, et al.).
The reasons for this mainly one-way traffic are manifold. For one thing the best engravers and printers were to be found in the Low Countries. For another the Church of England also accommodated adaptations of the highly popular continental Jesuit emblem books of the early 17th century.
The book consists of fourteen original articles, by a wide range of specialists in the field, each of whom addresses a different aspect of the general subject.

Children of the Laboring Poor

Expectation and Experience among the Orphans of Early Modern Augsburg

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Thomas Max Safley

A companion volume to Charity and Economy in the Orphanages of Early Modern Augsburg, this book takes up the agency and individuality of the laboring poor and their children. It examines the economic lives of poor, distressed, or truncated families on the basis of 5,734 biographical descriptions of children who passed through the City, Catholic, and Lutheran orphanages of Augsburg between 1572 and 1806. Studied in conjunction with administrative, criminal, and fiscal records of various sorts, these “Orphan Books” reveal the laboring poor as flexible and adaptive. Their fates were determined neither by the poverty they suffered nor the charity they received. Rather, they responded to changing economic and social conditions by using Augsburg’s orphanages to extend their resources, care for their children, and create opportunities. The findings will interest historians of poverty, charity, labor, and the Reformation.

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Edited by Karl A. E. Enenkel

Erasmus was not only one of the most widely read authors of the early modern period, but one of the most controversial. For some readers he represented the perfect humanist scholar; for others, he was an arrogant hypercritic, a Lutheran heretic and polemicist, a virtuoso writer and rhetorician, an inventor of a new, authentic Latin style, etc. In the present volume, a number of aspects of Erasmus’s manifold reception are discussed, especially lesser-known ones, such as his reception in Neo-Latin poetry. The volume does not focus only on so-called Erasmians, but offers a broader spectrum of reception and demonstrates that Erasmus’s name also was used in order to authorize completely un-Erasmian ideals, such as atheism, radical reformation, Lutheranism, religious intolerance, Jesuit education, Marian devotion, etc.

Contributors include: Philip Ford, Dirk Sacré, Paul J. Smith, Lucia Felici, Gregory D. Dodds, Hilmar M. Pabel, Reinier Leushuis, Jeanine De Landtsheer, Johannes Trapman, and Karl Enenkel.

What Disease was Plague?

On the Controversy over the Microbiological Identity of Plague Epidemics of the Past

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Ole Benedictow

In recent decades, alternatives to the established bubonic-plague theory have been presented as to the microbiologcal identity and mechanism(s) of spread of historical plague epidemics. In this monograph, the six important alternative theories are intensively discussed in the light of the historical sources, the central primary studies and standard works on bubonic plague and the alternative microbiological agents, insofar as they are testable. These seven theories are incompatible and at least six of them must be untenable. In the author’s opinion, the arguments against the bubonic-plague theory and for all alternative theories are untenable. This monograph therefore also has been written also as a standard work on bubonic plague, giving a broad and in-depth presentation of the medical, epidemiological and historical evidence and the methodological tenets for identification of historical diseases by comparison with modern medical knowledge.