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Frederick Newmeyer

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Edited by Mark Torrance, Luuk van Waes and David Galbraith

Writing is central to the functioning of developed societies. However, the psychological processes that allow us to transform complex ideas into language and express them on paper or computer screen are poorly understood. Writing and Cognition goes some way towards remedying this. It describes new and diverse work both by field leaders and by newer researchers exploring the complex relationships between language, the mind, and the environments in which writers work. Chapters range in focus from a detailed analysis of single-word production to the writing of whole texts. They explore the basic processes involved in writing, the effects of writing on thought and how these vary across different educational and workplace contexts.

Slips of the Ear

Errors in the Perception of Casual Conversation

Zinny Bond

Occasionally, listeners' strategies for dealing with casual speech lead them into an erroneous perception of the intended message - a slip of the ear. When such errors occur, listeners report hearing, as clearly and distinctly as any correctly perceived stretch of speech, something that does not correspond to the speaker's utterance. This book describes and analyzes a collection of almost 1000 examples of misperceptions from real-life conversations. Its coverage includes: complete data set of misperceptions in casual conversation; language understanding in ordinary circumstances; and, classifications and descriptions according to linguistic properties.

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Edited by Phillip Tedeschi and Annie Zaenen

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Maria Manoliu-Manea

This book constitutes a quest for discourse and pragmatic features responsible for so-called optional grammatical choices. In an attempt to adduce new evidence for the assumption that, in order to capture adequately the reasons for the choice of various grammatical devices, a multi-variable model is necessary which could account for the development and the functioning of grammaticalized ethno-linguistic features in a variety of languages. The main hypothesis put forward is that, limited as they are by the possibilities of a given language, the choices open to speakers when reconstructing linguistically the state of affairs are determined first and foremost by their foci of attention. Orality is one the most salient features of Romanian, but the profound consequences of such a feature for Romanian grammar have not been fully explored. The most frequently invoked characteristic of this orality has been labeled 'redundancy', as is manifest in the proliferation of clitics. But, as shown by the data analyzed in this book, the impact of orality on Romanian grammar is much more far-reaching, encompassing such phenomena as: the preference for specific syntactic constructions as markers of the central discourse entity around which the event is reconstructed linguistically; the grammaticalization of the means for marking differences in the degree of discourse prominence (the degree of discourse-activated knowledge); the extensive use of markers of discourse continuity; the means by which the story is 'visualized'; the grammaticalization of various means used for marking stage distance (backgrounding versus foregrounding the event); and, diversified means for marking differences between speakers' expectations. The book highlights those features of Romanian grammar which can be most satisfactorily explained by the interaction between grammar and various discourse and pragmatic strategies.

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Edited by Sjef Barbiers, Olaf Koeneman, Marika Lekakou and Margreet van der Ham

Syntactic doubling is the phenomenon in which a constituent, i.e., a morphosyntactic feature, morpheme, word or phrase, is expressed two or more times within a clause. Since such duplicates are often redundant in that they do not contribute to semantic interpretation, the question arises as to why they are possible or necessary. This theoretical question becomes even more urgent in view of the fact that closely related language varieties such as the dialects of one dialect family often differ with respect to the possibility of doubling. This book puts together seventeen papers on microvariation in syntactic doubling that deal with such theoretical issues. They provide a rich overview of the syntactic doubling phenomena attested so far and of the theoretical analyses that are currently available.The syntactic doubling phenomena discussed include, among others, subject pronoun doubling, WH pronoun doubling, possessive pronoun doubling, clitic doubling, expletive subjects, tense, mood and aspect doubling, auxiliary doubling, preposition doubling and negation doubling. Language varieties discussed in this book include Afrikaans, Alemannic, Bavarian, Tyrolean German, dialects of Dutch, dialects of Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Faroese, colloquial Icelandic, colloquial Finnish, colloquial European and Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan, Argentinian Spanish, dialects of Italian, Rumanian, Albanian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Pontic, Macedonian and Modern Greek.

William Ritchie and Tej Bhatia

The New Handbook of Second Language Acquisition is a thoroughly revised, re-organized, and re-worked edition of Ritchie and Bhatia's 1996 handbook. The work is divided into six parts, each devoted to a different aspect of the study of SLA. Part I includes a recent history of methods used in SLA research and an overview of currently used methods. Part II contains chapters on Universal Grammar, emergentism, variationism, information-processing, sociocultural, and cognitive-linguistic. Part III is devoted to overviews of SLA research on lexicon, morphosyntax, phonology, pragmatics, sentence processing, and the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge. Part IV examines neuropsycholgy of SLA, another on child SLA, and the effects of age on second language acquisition and use. Part V is concerned with the contribution of the linguistic environment to SLA, including work on acquisition in different environments, through the Internet, and by deaf learners. Finally, Part VI treats social factors in SLA, including research on acquisition in contact circumstances, on social identity in SLA, on individual differences in SLA, and on the final state of SLA, bilingualism.

Gregory Thompson and Edwin Lamboy

This handbook is unique in its focus on bilingual theories, issues on the teaching of bilinguals, bilingual policies abroad, and current research on bilinguals as all of this related in some way to the Spanish-speaking world. There is currently no other book like it available, despite the growing number of courses teaching Spanish Bilingualism. It is anticipated that this new handbook will be of great interest to linguists, sociolinguists, language acquisitionists, as well as teachers who deal with topics relating to bilingualism as it relates to Spanish speakers around the world. Though work has been done looking at bilingualism and multilingualism, this book provides a valuable addition that deals with an area where a comprehensive work such as this is indeed lacking.

Multimodality in Canadian Black Feminist Writing

Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand

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Maria Caridad Casas

This book develops a theory of multimodality – the participation of a text in more than one mode – centred on the poetry/poetics of Lillian Allen, Claire Harris, Dionne Brand, and Marlene Nourbese Philip. How do these poets represent oral Caribbean English Creoles (CECs) in writing and negotiate the relationship between the high literary in Canadian letters and the social and historical meanings of CECs? How do the latter relate to the idea of “female and black”?
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.

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Hughson T. Ong

In The Multilingual Jesus and the Sociolinguistic World of the New Testament, Hughson Ong provides a study of the multifarious social and linguistic dynamics that compose the speech community of ancient Palestine, which include its historical linguistic shifts under different military regimes, its geographical linguistic landscape, the social functions of the languages in its linguistic repertoire, and the specific types of social contexts where those languages were used. Using a sociolinguistic model, his study attempts to paint a portrait of the sociolinguistic situation of ancient Palestine. This book is arguably the most comprehensive treatment of the subject matter to date in terms of its survey of the secondary literature and of its analysis of the sociolinguistic environment of first-century Palestine.