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The Globalization of Energy

China and the European Union

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Edited by Mehdi Amineh and Guang YANG

Since the conclusion of the 1985 trade and cooperation agreement between the European Community and China, a new political dynamic has been set in motion between two emerging entities: industrializing China and integrating Europe. It is reflected in, among others, European Commission policy strategy papers and, probably more importantly, in numerous sectoral dialogues and agreements. Europe has become China’s largest export destination. For the E.U., China has become its second largest trading partner and its most important source of imports.
The book edited by Mehdi Parvizi Amineh and Yang Guang studies the fueling of this Eurasian production and trading system. This is the policy area of energy supplies and energy security. Cooperation on the basis of complementarity is rather easy. Cooperation in the competition for access to, and share in, non-renewable stocks of oil and gas is more challenging. This book studies a series of bilateral energy relations (Part One) in a global-level, geo-political framework. Policy outcomes in bilateral relations are impacted by multi-lateral networks. Part Two surveys the quest for renewable energy, which is the core of supply security. China has created the largest solar panel production facility. It is capable of producing light-weight magnets used in, among others, wind-power generators and hybrid car engines. This year China is expected to overtake the U.S. as the largest producer of wind turbines. China’s step-by-step reduction of the gap in wealth and power with countries that overran it in the past has so far been remarkably peaceful. We know in both Europe and China all too well that trend-driven change in capability ratios between great powers does not by necessity harmonize well with leadership responses to it. By charting the domain of the energy competition, this book marks an important contribution to the rationalization of energy policy as an area of competitive cooperation.
— Henk Houweling, Instructor at the Europe Institute of the University of Macao

Contributors are Mehdi Parvizi Amineh, Robert M. Cutler, Chen Mo, Eva Patricia Rakel, Daniel Scholten, Philip Sen, Raquel Shaoul, Frank Umbach, Eduard B. Vermeer, Shi Dan, and Yang Guang.

Secure Oil and Alternative Energy

The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union

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Edited by Mehdi P. Amineh and Guang YANG

Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics and Energy Paths of China and the European Union is the follow-on study to the well-received The Globalization of Energy: China and the European Union (Brill 2010). While intensive cooperation between China and the EU in the fields of energy use, environmental protection, and sustainability is highly needed, the question remains unanswered how this cooperation could be organized. Since the proven gas and oil reserves lay outside China and the EU, they are both facing geopolitical challenges to energy security in the foreseeable future. This volume puts the geopolitical implementation of China’s and the EU’s energy security into the context of (a) geo-economic systems in a global scale including the Central Eurasian, the Middle East and Africa hydrocarbon energy complex and (b) the emergence of a geo-economic energy network spreading from China to Western Europe. The edited volume consists of 14 high-quality papers on topics announced in the title of the volume: the geo-politics of energy-supply security, alternative sources of energy, energy transition and, at the global level, energy governance.

Prof. Dr. Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer,
Director Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel,
Forschungs-und Studienstätte für Europäische Kulturgeschichte
Germany

Geopolitical Economy of Energy and Environment

China and the European Union

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Edited by Mehdi P. Amineh and Guang Yang

This book is the product of a joint research program between the Institute of West Asia & African Studies of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing and the Energy Program Asia of the International Institute for Asian Studies, Leiden University. China’s transition to an urban-industrial society relies on its abundant domestic coal supplies, and on an increase in oil and gas imports. However, authorities are confronted with trade-offs between investments in expanding supplies of fossils, environmental sustainability, energy efficiency and in clean energy. Resources spent on expanding imported energy have to weighted against clean energy investments and improving efficiency of the fossil-fuel sector. The same is no less true for the European Union and its member states. Import dependency on piped gas is again growing. Security of supply of natural gas depends on political cooperation with energy-rich countries. At the same the EU has to meet its clean energy commitments by compromises between member states and ‘Brussels’. Chinese National Oil Companies bridge the worlds of government in China and the extractive sector in hydrocarbon exporting-countries. At the global level, Chinese (Trans-)National Oil Companies maintain competitive and cooperative relations with privately owned International Oil companies. This book focuses, among others, on these networks with the objective to contribute to the study of the geopolitical economy of the energy sectors in the global system.

Contributors are: M.P. Amineh, Eric K. Chu, Wina H.J. Crijns-Graus, Robert Cutler, Li Xiaohua, Liu Dong, Chen Mo, Nana de Graaff, Joyeeta Gupta, Sara Hardus, Barbara Hogenboom, Sun Hongbo and Yang Guang.

Marxism and Ecological Economics

Toward a Red and Green Political Economy

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Paul Burkett

This book undertakes the first general assessment of ecological economics from a Marxist point of view, and shows how Marxist political economy can make a substantial contribution to ecological economics. The analysis is developed in terms of four basic issues: (1) nature and economic value; (2) the treatment of nature as capital; (3) the significance of the entropy law for economic systems; (4) the concept of sustainable development. In each case, it is shown that Marxism can help ecological economics fulfill its commitments to multi-disciplinarity, methodological pluralism, and historical openness. In this way, a foundation is constructed for a substantive dialogue between Marxists and ecological economists.

Power, Islam, and Political Elite in Iran

A Study on the Iranian Political Elite from Khomeini to Ahmadinejad

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Eva Rakel

The Iranian Islamic revolution brought about a political system based on a combination of state institutions that derive their legitimacy from Islamic law and republican institutions legitimized by the people. As there are no legal political parties in the Islamic Republic of Iran, political factions represent the varying ideological and material interests of members of the political elite and their supporters. This book analyzes the rivalries between the political factions and their related state institutions and the impact of the dynamics of factionalism on domestic (economic and socio-cultural) and foreign policy formulation. It shows that tensions inherent to the structure of state institutions and factional rivalries slow down the process of democratization and economic reforms in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Oil and Security Policies

Saudi Arabia, 1950-2012

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Islam Yasin Qasem

With one quarter of proven oil reserves and the largest oil production in the world, Saudi Arabia has been at the center of world politics. Its vast oil resources have been utilized in various ways to maximize internal and external security. While oil revenue allowed the Saudi state to buy off legitimacy at home and abroad, the Saudi state exploited oil supply to either forge alliances with or pressure consuming and producing countries. By providing an insightful account of how oil resources shaped Saudi security policies since the mid-twentieth century, Islam Y. Qasem offers a timely contribution to the study of oil politics and the interrelationship between economic interdependence and security.

Extractive Imperialism in the Americas

Capitalism's New Frontier

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James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer

Recent changes in the global economy, which include a growing demand for energy and natural resources such as industrial minerals and agro-food products, have brought about a massive devastating pillage of resources in the developing world by multinational corporations as well as states with energy and food security concerns—and concerns about a system (global capitalism) in the throes of a global crisis. These developments have also brought about a major change in the form taken by imperialism (actions taken by the state to advance the interests of the dominant capitalist class). This book explores the changing face of US imperialism in the regional context of the Americas, a major stage in the unfolding drama of a system in crisis.

Monsters of the Market

Zombies, Vampires and Global Capitalism

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David McNally

Winner of the 2012 Isaac and Tamara Deutscher Memorial Prize.

Monsters of the Market investigates the rise of capitalism through the prism of the body-panics it arouses. Drawing on folklore, literature and popular culture, the book links tales of monstrosity from early-modern England, including Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, to a spate of recent vampire- and zombie-fables from sub-Saharan Africa, and it connects these to Marx’s persistent use of monster-metaphors in his descriptions of capitalism. Reading across these tales of the grotesque, Monsters of the Market offers a novel account of the cultural and corporeal economy of a global market-system. The book thus makes original contributions to political economy, cultural theory, commodification-studies and ‘body-theory’.

Economic Diplomacy

Japan and the Balance of National Interests

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Maaike Okano-Heijmans

This book by Maaike Okano-Heijmans makes an important contribution to the concept of economic diplomacy.

A conceptual-study mode of economic diplomacy is combined with applied analysis of Japan’s economic diplomacy practice. The two approaches reinforce one another, yielding a conceptualization of economic diplomacy that is grounded in practical insights.

A comprehensive approach
A core argument in the book is that economic diplomacy, strategically, affirms that economic/commercial interests and political interests reinforce one another and should thus be seen in tandem. This contrasts with the predominant approach in the transatlantic world, which attaches relatively greater importance to the military–economic linkage in the quest for influence.

The case of Japan
Japan has employed economic diplomacy as a central instrument of its foreign policy and quest for national security since the post-war period. The reconfiguration of regional and global power that started in the 1990s encouraged the Japanese government, in coordination and cooperation with the private sector, to reassess its economic diplomacy policy.

Power shifts
Economic Diplomacy: Japan and the Balance of National Interests illuminates the debates underlying these shifts, the various ways by which Japan’s reinvention of its economic diplomacy is implemented, and the consequences for Japanese foreign policy at large.
Practical relevance

The critical insights offered by the examination of Japan are pertinent for Western countries, as well as for other East Asian nations. They will be of interest to scholars and practitioners of diplomacy, international relations and international economic law and policy.

This book is the ninth volume in the Diplomatic Studies series, edited by Jan Melissen and published by Brill, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

For more information see brill.com/economic-diplomacy-0.

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Kirstyn Inglis

Following some ten years as a practicing lawyer and consultant, Kirstyn Inglis has been researching the evolving legal practice of EU enlargement for over ten years. This book, succinctly, introduces this evolving practice, covering ‘transitional arrangements’ in accession treaties, the Treaty of Lisbon, recent European Court case law, the specific governance challenge of incorporating Bulgaria and Romania and the strategy for future enlargements to bring in the Western Balkans and Turkey. In part two, the examples of the environment and the agri-food acquis are explored, including the analysis of the transitional arrangements in practice. Overall, the diversity and complexity of the pre-accession and post-accession challenge of enlargement becomes apparent, as do key challenges for the evolution of the acquis communautaire in an enlarging Union at a time when Croatia is waiting to sign its own accession treaty.