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New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts

Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Second Edition. Reprint revised by Michael Bothe

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Michael Bothe

It is a major cultural achievement that violence in armed conflicts is restrained by international legal rules. As the nature of these conflicts changes, these rules have to be adapted accordingly in order to provide effective protection for the victims. The adoption of the two Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions in 1977 was a major step in this development. The authors, who were involved in the negotiation of these two treaties, give a first hand account of the meaning of the text and the intent of the negotiators. The book is, thus, an important tool to better understand and implement these treaties which have proved their salutary importance in the all too many conflicts during the last decades. The current volume is a revised reprint, with new introductory materials, of the original text published in 1982.

Edited by Michael Bothe and Thomas Doerschel

This reference work contains a systematic collection of the most essential documents relating to peacekeeping in its widest sense, concentrating on efforts within the United Nations' framework. It contains the text of former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali's Agenda for Peace, the related supplement, the comprehensive texts of the most relevant model peace missions agreements, the texts of all authorization resolutions, as well as an index of all UNSC resolutions dealing with peacekeeping. It also contains the texts of the UN Use of Force resolutions relating to Korea, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda and Haiti. It is an essential reference work for researchers, international and non-governmental organizations, and students involved in peacekeeping.

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Edited by Michael Bothe and Boris Kondoch

International Peacekeeping is devoted to reporting upon and analyzing international peacekeeping with an emphasis upon legal and policy issues. It provides the interested public - civil servants, politicians, the military, academics, journalists, and others - with an up-to-date source of information on peacekeeping, enabling them to keep abreast of the most important developments in the field. This is achieved not only by the provision of 'basic documents' (on CD ROM), such as Security Council Resolutions or Reports from the UN Secretary-General, but also by expert commentaries on world events connected with peacekeeping operations. Thus, International Peacekeeping not only has a recording and documentary function, for those who wish to be kept well-informed, but also plays a role in forming opinions on the further development of peacekeeping as an instrument. Peacekeeping is treated in a pragmatic light, seen as a form of international military cooperation for the preservation or restoration of international peace and security, attention being focused primarily on UN peacekeeping operations.
This yearbook is the continuation of the journal International Peacekeeping.

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Edited by Michael Bothe and Peter H. Sand

This volume is the product of a joint effort at the Research Centre of the Hague Academy of International Law. In addition to the introductory reports by the two directors of studies, it assembles the contributions of participants from 15 countries - a group of young lawyers from very diverse legal cultures, who have since embarked on auspicious professional and academic careers. The topic selected, i.e., the instruments of international environmental policy,
was an expedition into as yet uncharted territory, in the borderland of international economic law and international environmental law. Together we
enter what Nobel laureate Douglass C. North has called the “non-ergodic” world of environmental régimes, teeming with political and regulatory systems that are frequently subject to unforeseeable technological and natural changes. This collection of studies is an attempt to address those challenges and to assess them from a legal perspective. Contributions are grouped in three parts: the focus of Part I is on the relationship of international trade and the environment; Part II deals with the problems of development and the environment; and Part III concentrates on the
role of specific economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 22.

Edited by Michael Bothe, P. Macalister-Smith and Thomas Kurzidem

The OSCE in the Maintenance of Peace and Security

Conflict Prevention, Crisis Management and Peaceful Settlement of Disputes

Edited by Michael Bothe, Natalino Ronzitti and Allan Rosas

Edited by Michael Bothe, Natalino Ronzitti and Allan Rosas

Edited by Michael Bothe, Mary Ellen O'Connell and Natalino Ronzitti

With considerable insight and analysis, the editors and contributors to the book—the world’s leading ethicists, political scientists and international lawyers—investigate the use of force since the end of the Cold War and, simultaneously, what changes have or should occur with respect to sovereignty and the law in the 21st century.


Redefining Sovereignty has resulted from three groundbreaking workshops on international law and the use of force: the first was held in Rome soon after NATO’s 1999 intervention in Kosovo; the second took place in Frankfurt after the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan; and the third occurred in Columbus, Ohio after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Together, these and other uses of armed force since the end of the Cold War have raised new and challenging questions for the international law and policy on the regulation of armed conflict.

These questions are explored in the thoughtful text, including: With the end of superpower rivalry have these uses of force had a particular impact on the state system? Have they, for example, affected the concept of state sovereignty? Have they affected the legal regime on the use of force? By the time of the Iraq invasion in March 2003, had some uses of force long-considered prohibited by the principle of non-intervention become lawful? Did the use of force to protect human rights, to respond to terrorism, for arms control or to preempt future threats become lawful or if not lawful, somehow otherwise legitimate?


Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.