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Aspects of Metamorphosis

Fictional Representations of the Becoming Human

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D.B.D. Asker

Aspects of Metamorphosis: Fictional Representations of the Becoming Human explores the various forms of metamorphosis found in literature – mostly modern fiction but informed by earlier examples – and the premises upon which the literature of transformation may be said to depend. Instances of metamorphosis are very widespread in modern literature but as yet there has been no attempt to describe this literary-anthropological phenomenon from a larger perspective. This study approaches such a task. The focus of Aspects of Metamorphosis is on human-animal fictional metamorphoses which embody the concept of becoming-human. Gilles Deleuze describes metamorphosis (especially in Kafka) as the becoming-animal. Across the wide range of examples of literary metamorphosis in different languages and cultures, I describe the becoming-animal as an aspect of the becoming human, a radical approach to mankind’s perception of itself, and restoration to itself, through an animal other. Franz Kafka is in many ways an odd man out in the crowd of modern metamorphosists. Other authors across borders, political, geographical and linguistic, present a humanist and moralist perspective that does not represent a fundamental break with the norms and cultural traditions rooted in the past.

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Edited by Henk Hillenaar

Il y a soixante ans Ely Carcassonne fit paraître son ?Etat présent des études sur Fénelon, ouvrage qui a rendu de très grands services à tous ceux qui depuis lors ont écrit sur l'archevêque de Cambrai. Carcassonne, mort peu de temps après, aurait sans doute été heureusement surpris s'il avait pu connaître la richesse des travaux qui ont suivi les siens ce dernier demi-siècle. L'état présent des travaux sur Fénelon n'est plus du tout en 1999 ce qu'il était en 1939. La bibliographie assez impressionnante que René Faille a rédigée pour ce volume en fait foi.
La publication de la Correspondance de Fénelon , achevée en 1999, dont les Tables paraîtront sous peu, puis celle des Oeuvres de Fénelon dans la Bibliothèque de la Pléiade constituent sans doute l'aboutissement de ce nouvel élan des études féneloniennes, dont Jean Orcibal et plus tard Jacques Le Brun ont été les principaux instigateurs. Leurs éditions critiques forment aussi le point de départ des recherches qu'une nouvelle génération de chercheurs, avec d'autres centres d'intérêt et d'autres orientations de travail, va entreprendre ou a déjà entrepris.'où l'idée de faire, plus d'un demi-siècle après l'ouvrage d'Ely Carcassonne, un Etat présent des travaux sur Fénelon II , dans l'espoir qu'un tel recueil pourra rendre à cette nouvelle génération des services analogues à ceux qu'a fournis le fameux Etat présent de Carcassonne à leurs prédécesseurs. Mais ce que ce dernier avait fait tout seul, est devenu en 1999 le travail d'une équipe de 'féneloniens'. Les différents membres de cette équipe ont eu une double tâche: dire ce qui leur paraissait essentiel dans le domaine qui leur avait été confié et, surtout, donner un aperçu historique et critique des travaux parus dans ce même domaine ces soixante dernières années. On verra que certains auteurs se sont surtout arrêtés au premier objectif. Il n'empêche que dans son ensemble ce recueil contient d'abord l'histoire de ce qui s'est fait, ce dernier demi-siècle, autour de l'oeuvre de l'archevêque de Cambrai. Nous espérons que, dans cette qualité avant tout, il pourra être utile aux lecteurs.
Pour leur délibérations, les auteurs de cet ouvrage se sont réunis, à Groningue, aux Pays Bas, en juin 1999, trois cents ans après la parution de Télémaque , trois cents ans également après la condamnation des Maximes des saints . Ce recueil est donc aussi quelque peu une commémoration.

Stylistics

Prospect & Retrospect

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Edited by David L. Hoover and Sharon Lattig

Stylistics: Prospect & Retrospect looks backward toward classic and foundational approaches and texts that helped to establish the field of stylistics. It also looks forward by examining recent innovations that seem likely to alter the ways in which style is studied in the years to come. The essays presented here, written by an array of experts from nine countries on four continents, employ a wide range of approaches to works that range from romantic poetry to contemporary fiction and from traditional folktales and nursery rhymes to contemporary film. The variety of authors, approaches, and works found here testifies to the vitality of the field of stylistics, and these essays should appeal to all those interested in the nature of style and in the history and future of stylistics.

Dying and Death

Inter-Disciplinary Perspectives

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Edited by Asa Kasher

Death is a topic people are reluctant to ponder. Neither is dying a process that is usually being openly discussed. However, on a variety of occasions, dying and death are on a person’s minds, under some sensitive circumstances, he or she are eager to discuss with a close person, a friend, a professional.
The present volume, the second in the Series on Dying and Death, is meant to enrich personal experience of dying or death by providing its reader with knowledge and understanding of some aspects of dying or death.
Section 1 describes practices of mourning, in different times and places: USA during the Civil War ( Ashley Byock), the Island of Viz, between Croatia and Italy ( Kathleen Young), present day Israel ( Asa Kasher), medieval Serbia ( Mira Crouch) and post-Holocaust USA ( Paula David).
Section 2 consists of reflections on mourning. It includes philosophical discussions of Friendship ( Gary Peters), Grace ( Dana Freibach-Heifetz), and the Other ( Havi Carel), all in the context of mourning, as well as Mourning itself as a skill ( Marguerite Peggy Flynn).
Section 3 brings papers on culture and suicide, in early modern Holland ( Laura Cruz), in historical Japan ( Lawrence Fouraker), as well as in the Jazz age ( Kathleen Jones).
Section 4 discusses different predicaments of medics facing death and dying: terminal diagnosis ( Angela Armstrong-Coster), palliative patients ( Anna Taube), and the hospice setting ( Elizabeth Gill).

Irony and Idyll

Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and Mansfield Park on Screen

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Marie N. Sørbø

Jane Austen’s worldwide popularity is not least due to the remaking of her novels for the visual media. Of the fifty-odd Austen related productions since 1938, forty-three of them adapt her novels to the various screens of cinema, television, computer and tablet. However, her attraction for film-makers is undoubtedly promoted by her own qualities. As a novelist, Jane Austen has been particularly recognized for her ironic voice, which dominates all her stories and gives the readers a peculiar perspective on her world. Do film-makers want this, and if so, how do they transmit her attitude of amused distance? In the present book, Marie N. Sørbø investigates the function and targets of irony in two novels and seven films. Irony and Idyll is the first book-length study of Austen’s irony since 1952, and the only comparative analysis of all the available screen adaptations of Pride and Prejudice and Mansfield Park. On the bicentenary of their publication, these novels continue to influence modern culture.

Towards a Methodology for the Investigation of Norms in Audiovisual Translation

The Choice between Subtitling and Revoicing in Greece. Amsterdam

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Fotios Karamitroglou

Here is presented for the first time a methodology for the investigation of norms which operate in the field of audiovisual translation. Based on the findings of the polysystem approach to translation, the present work aims to demonstrate that it is possible to investigate audiovisual translation and the norms that operate in it in a systematic way.
Human agents, (audiovisual) products, recipients, and the mode itself are thoroughly investigated and stratified under a lower, middle and upper level. Specific techniques for collecting and analysing data are suggested.
The model is tentatively applied to the investigation of norms which seem to determine the choice between subtitling and revoicing children's TV programmes in Greece. However, one will soon notice that the same model could be applied for the investigation of audiovisual translation norms in any other country. But not only that: one will quickly realise that, with minute modifications, the same model can prove effective for the study of norms in other modes of written translation too. Therefore, this volume can be of a high interest not only to audiovisual translation scholars and practitioners, but to general translation scholars and students of translation proper as well.

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Edited by Walter Schönau and Henk Hillenaar

Who of us, as a child, has not dreamed of having other parents: a gentler mother, a kinder or stronger father, a more illustrious family? According to our secret dreams, were not most of us born sons or daughters of a king, a president, a champion? Freud termed this the Family Romance. We all carry these secret scenarios in ourselves. Usually they are long forgotten but nevertheless remain alive in the stories we tell ourselves and relate to others. Therefore the Family Romance is one of the keys to the understanding of literature. The French literary critic Marthe Robert developed in an original way this simple but fundamental theory of Freud. In 1972 she presented in her now famous publication Origins of the Novel a new method to analyse the novel and to understand its history. Her study offers such a convincing and lively proof of the relevance of Freud's views that it still invites us to expand on its ideas and suggestions, to elaborate, develop and, if necessary, correct them. It is in this perspective that the authors of this volume write about the historical and mythical figures Mary, Medea, Electra, Kaspar Hauser and Sir Gawain. Other articles are devoted to the Family Romance in the works of the following authors: Barthes, Beckett, Camus, Drieu la Rochelle, Faulkner, Flaubert, Goethe, Claire Goll, Gombrowicz, Greene, Kafka, Lévy, Modiano, Petronius, Sartre, Vigny.

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Nicholas Meihuizen

In recent years Yeats scholarship has been, to a large extent, historically-based in emphasis. Much has been gained from this emphasis, if we consider the refinement of critical awareness resulting from a better understanding of the intricate relationship between the poet and his times. However, the present author feels that an exclusive adherence to this approach impacts negatively on our ability to appreciate and understand Yeatsian creativity from within the internally located imperatives of creativity itself, as opposed to our understanding it on the basis of aesthetically constitutive socio-historical forces operative from without. He feels a need to relocate the study of Yeats in the work and thought of the poet himself, to focus again on the poet’s own myth-making. To this end Nicholas Meihuizen examines this myth-making as it relates to certain archetypal figures, places, and structures. The figures in question are the antagonist and goddess, embodiments of conflict and feminine forces in Yeats, and they participate in a lively drama within the places and shapes considered sacred by the poet: places such as the Sligo district and Byzantium; shapes such as the circling gyres of his system. The book should be interesting and valuable to students and scholars of varying degrees of acquaintance with the poet. To long-time Yeatsians it offers fresh perspectives onto important works and preoccupations. To new students it offers a means of exploring wide-ranging material within a few central, interrelated frames, a means that mirrors Yeats’s own commitment to unity in diversity.

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Peter Dayan

Lautréamont et Sand? Bizarre accouplement, dira-t-on. Selon la tradition, Sand serait le plus idéaliste et le plus moralisateur des écrivains; Lautréamont, au contraire, serait le plus satanique, le plus sadique, le plus nihiliste. Pour saper cette opposition, Peter Dayan commence par démontrer l'instabilité diabolique des idéaux et des moralités de Sand. Certes, ses oeuvres regorgent de principes moraux et philosophiques. Mais ces principes sont sans cesse déstabilisés; car d'un roman à l'autre ils changent radicalement; et Sand les met dans la bouche de narrateurs peu fiables, dont la philosophie patriarcale est incapable de digérer l'ouverture, la variété, l'imprévisibilité de l'espace diégétique sandien. La deuxième partie du présent essai, à propos de Lautréamont, procède en sens inverse. Les paradoxes de Lautréamont, l'instabilité inénarrable de son narrateur, se conçoivent traditionnellement dans le cadre d'une volonté générale de détruire tout principe humain ou divin. Mais Dayan présente plus positivement ces incohérences; selon lui, elles aident à bâtir un texte dont la structure est bizarrement analogue à celle de la conscience humaine elle-même - impénétrable, indéterminable, stratifiée jusqu'à l'opacité, mais productrice et destructrice à la fois d'idéaux fêlés. Il en résulte, chez les deux auteurs, une écriture qui nous montre pourquoi et à quel point il est difficile de maintenir des valeurs sûres - et qui jouit sans cesse de cette difficulté même. Chez Lautréamont et Sand, ne cherchons pas le réalisme, ni les idées grandioses; cherchons l'euphorie du possible.

Kafka's Novels

An Interpretation

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Patrick Bridgwater

Kafka's three novels, to be understood as an ever more intricate portrayal of the inner life of one central character (Henry James's 'centre of consciousness'), each reflecting the problems of their self-critical creator, are tantamount to dreams. The hieroglyphic, pictorial language in which they are written is the symbolic language in which dreams and thoughts on the edge of sleep are visualized. Not for nothing did Kafka define his writing as a matter of fantasizing with whole orchestras of [free] associations. Written in a deliberately enhanced hypnagogic state, these novels embody the alternative logic of dreams, with the emphasis on chains of association and verbal bridges between words and word-complexes. The product of many years' preoccupation with its subject, Patrick Bridgwater's new book is an original, chapter-by-chapter study of three extraordinarily detailed novels, of each of which it offers a radically new reading that makes more, and different, sense than any previous reading. In Barthes' terms these fascinating novels are 'unreadable', but the present book shows that, properly read, they are entirely, if ambiguously, readable. Rooted in Kafka's use of language, it consistently explores, in detail, (i) the linguistic implications of the dreamlike nature of his work, (ii) the metaphors he takes literally, and (iii) the ambiguities of so many of the words he chooses to use. In doing so it takes account not only of the secondary meanings of German words and the sometimes dated metaphors of which Kafka, taking them literally, spins his text, but also, where relevant, of Czech and Italian etymology. Split, for ease of reference, into chapters corresponding to the chapters of the novels in the new Originalfassung, the book is aimed at all readers of Kafka with a knowledge of German, for the author shows that Kafka's texts can be understood only in the language in which they were written: because Kafka's meaning is often hidden beneath the surface of the text, conveyed via secondary meanings that are specific to German, any translation is necessarily an Oberflächenübersetzung.