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Diaristic writing has often been relegated to the fringes of literary studies as a marginal cultural activity. This volume seeks to challenge that marginality by exploring some of the wide-ranging forms of literary practice encompassed by diaristic writing in Europe from the Renaissance to the present day. The volume deals with questions of the value and status of the diary, of the functioning of the diary in society and history, and of the reception and interpretation of the multifarious forms of first-person daily writing. The volume investigates diaries across national borders and linguistic boundaries, so as to make the hitherto marginal place of the private journal a site of fruitful interdisciplinary encounters. Australian, British, Catalonian, French, German and Italian critics examine diaries dating from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, within the context of the literature, history and literary history of Catalonia, England, France, Germany and Italy. A prime concern of the essays in this collection is to highlight the cultural, generic and historical diversity of the diary, while emphasising the points of convergence between different texts and differing critical approaches to the texts. The volume will be of interest to students and teachers of European and comparative literature.
Étude comparée du Renégat ou un esprit confus d’Albert Camus, de Voyage au bout de la nuit de Louis-Ferdinand Céline, de Light in August de William Faulkner, et de The Snows of Kilimanjaro d’Ernest Hemingway
Le présent ouvrage aborde la représentation de la blessure, image récurrente dans la littérature du XXe siècle. Quatre œuvres écrites par des auteurs majeurs tels que Camus, Céline, Faulkner et Hemingway, sont mises en regard et permettent le va-et-vient que toute critique comparatiste se doit d’effectuer entre les textes et l’élaboration progressive du sens.
Destiné aux amateurs d’études comparatistes aussi bien qu’aux étudiants de littératures française ou américaine, ce travail ne cherche pas d’établir une théorie du corps blessé dans la littérature du XXe siècle. Il s’attache à définir les motifs et les conséquences de la répétition d’une image dans des œuvres chronologiquement proches. La démarche critique conjugue l’approche bachelardienne de l’image et les herméneutiques complémentaires de Gilbert Durand et de Paul Ricoeur. En s’intéressant à la phénoménologie de l’image, à la violence du scénario qui mène à la blessure et à l’écriture qu’elle informe, l’auteur garde à l’esprit que “toute question posée au corps devient une brèche, un commencement d’inquiétude, une obsession” (Louis-Ferdinand Céline).
An Interdisciplinary Approach
Written across the disciplines of law, literature, philosophy, and theology, Understanding Evil: An Interdisciplinary Approach represents wide-ranging approaches to and understandings of “evil” and “wickedness.”
Consisting of three sections – “ Grappling with Evil,” “ Justice, Responsibility, and War” and “ Blame, Murder, and Retributivism,” - all the essays are inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary in focus. Common themes emerge around the dominant narrative movements of grieving, loss, powerlessness, and retribution that have shaped so many political and cultural issues around the world since the fall of 2001. At the same time, the interdisciplinary nature of this collection, together with the divergent views of its chapters, reminds one that, in the end, an inquiry into “evil” and “wickedness” is at its best when it promotes intelligence and compassion, creativity and cooperation.
The thirteen essays are originally presented at and then developed in light of dialogues held at the Third Global Conference on Perspectives on Evil and Human Wickedness, held in March 2002 in Prague.
Structures linguistiques et interprétations
Réunir les très nombreuses personnes qui, de par leurs activités de recherche ou d'enseignement, ont eu la chance de croiser la route d'Andrée Borillo et, parfois même, de faire un bout de chemin avec elle ne nous a pas paru raisonnable. Outre le fait qu'une telle entreprise aurait nécessité plusieurs volumes d'hommages, l'adéquation des thématiques traitées de même que l'homogénéité du contenu ne nous semblaient pas suffissamment garanties. Nous avons donc volontairement limité cet ouvrage à un petit nombre de contributeurs, toulousains ou extérieurs à Toulouse, ayant entretenu des liens étroits avec Andrée en raison de leurs centres d'intérêt scientifiques ou, plus généralement, du fait de leur action en faveur de la recherche. On retrouvera donc, parmi les auteurs de ce volume, les membres fondateurs et les permanents de l'ERSS de même que plusieurs linguistes français ou étrangers ayant travaillé, à titres divers, sur des questions de linguistique française et ceci, notamment, dans les domaines de la sémantique et de la syntaxe.
Les travaux présentés dans cet ouvrage couvrent (partiellement ou totalement, séparément ou simultanément) plusieurs des thèmes abordés par Andrée Borillo dans ses recherches, au nombre desquels figurent la sémantique du temps et de l'aspect, la sémantique de l'espace, les langues ou domaines de spécialité ou bien le discours. De nombreuses autres contributions font également appel à des questions de sémantique et de pragmatique, qu'il s'agisse de l'accord en genre des adjectifs, du pluriel, des noms propres, de la possession ou encore de la notion de contexte. Enfin, trois études portant sur des problèmes de syntaxe, de morphologie et de phonologie sont là pour rappeler le rôle central que l'observation des formes linguistiques joue dans la démarche d'Andrée Borillo.
John Donne to Don DeLillo
Contemporary studies of memory focus either on the psychology of remembering, on its archives and media, or on the traditional ars memoriae. The general cultural framework with its social and material factors is largely neglected, despite the obvious impact on both collective and individual mnemonic mentality. But, as in the first half of the seventeenth century or the later twentieth century, the literary and political invocation of religious, collective or national memory occurs most of all in times of historical rupture, and attendant changes of a radical technological and cultural nature. Appeals to the power of memory are not only indicative of the anxiety about the loss of its binding or absolving character. They are already symptomatic of a deep crisis of cultural memory in itself, resulting from an erosion of firm spatial, temporal and historical references along with an increasing tendency towards reflexivity, which calls the apparently self-evident facts of past and present into question. The continuity of remembering, however, as this study argues, presupposes the permanence and recurrence of social and material relations, of representative or symbolic persons, objects and events, in which it can inscribe itself. But owing to the shift in historical consciousness from (typological) past to progressive future and novelty and under the impress of industrial production and modern media (mobility and communications), the Western subject has to cope constantly with new empirical situations, symbolic values and historical or current information whose origin and evolution – indeed, the very memory of them – remain alien to personal identity and memory. The promise of redemption and salvation, still inherent in seventeenth-century collective memory, loses credibility.
The study includes a wide range of authors from Donne to Pope, Tennyson to George Eliot and Walter Pater, W.B. Yeats to Don DeLillo and covers the whole period from early modern England to postmodernism. It can thus also be read as a brief history of Western memory and its continuing crises.
The Politics of Memory in the Spanish Transition to Democracy
Most accounts of the Spanish transition to democracy have been celebratory exercises at the service of a stabilizing rather than a critical project of far-reaching reform. As one of the essays in this volume puts it, the “pact of oblivion,” which characterized the Spanish transition to democracy, curtailed any serious attempt to address the legacies of authoritarianism that the new democracy inherited from the Franco era. As a result, those legacies pervaded public discourse even in newly created organs of opinion. As another contributor argues, the Transition was based on the erasure of memory and the invention of a new political tradition. On the other hand, memory and its etiolation have been an object of reflection for a number of film directors and fiction writers, who have probed the return of the repressed under spectral conditions.
Above all, this book strives to present memory as a performative exercise of democratic agents and an open field for encounters with different, possibly divergent, and necessarily fragmented recollections. The pact of the Transition could not entirely disguise the naturalization of a society made of winners and losers, nor could it ensure the consolidation of amnesia by political agents and by the tools that create hegemony by shaping opinion. Spanish society is haunted by the specters of a past it has tried to surmount by denying it. It seems unlikely that it can rid itself of its ghosts without in the process undermining the democracy it sought to legitimate through the erasure of memories and the drowning of witnesses' voices in the cacaphony of triumphant modernization.
Dialogue entre Duras et Freud
Omniprésente dans son oeuvre mais loin d'être glorieuse, la maternité se trouve au centre de l'univers littéraire de Marguerite Duras. Le désir de retourner dans le sein maternel et l'impossibilité d'y parvenir se confondent dans le jeu de l'écriture pour composer le refrain sans fin qu'est ce désir d'osmose.
Dans cette étude, l'auteur se propose d'aller au-delà du lien entre l'omniprésence du personnage maternel et la réalité biographique de Duras en soulignant le caractère fictionnel de l'oeuvre. Des analyses textuelles rhétoriques et narratologiques lui permettent de souligner les représentations de la maternité et de la féminité dans les textes de Duras et dans la théorie psychanalytique freudienne. La confrontation de ces deux discours résulte en un dialogue entre Duras et Freud où les deux locuteurs fictifs sont respectés, mais soumis à une analyse critique. La question qui s'impose est de savoir si l'oeuvre de Duras contribue à confirmer la différence sexuelle définie dans le contexte social et ancrée dans la relation avec la mère, comme le prétend la psychanalyse freudienne, ou si elle contribue justement à la remise en question de cette différence sociale.
L'écriture de Duras manie les clichés culturels et les mythes qui entourent la mère et la maternité. Ceci se manifeste sous des aspects d'une grande variété. Cette thèse montre le jeu des variations sur les fantasmes soi-disant universels, variations qui se dessinent dans les répétitions apparentes qui prennent à chaque fois une forme nouvelle. L'originalité de Duras est de prendre les mythes et les fantasmes à la lettre, et ce procédé les rend parfois grotesques. La forme littéraire paradoxale donnée à ces fantasmes renverse le rapport entre le littéral et le figuré. Sans être moralisateurs, ils mettent ainsi en lumière le caractère fantasmatique de l'idéologie qui ancre la féminité dans la maternité.
Même maintenant, dix ans après le décès de Marguerite Duras, son œuvre inspire toujours de nombreux lecteurs. L'année du dixième anniversaire de sa mort célèbre cette oeuvre qui continue à nous fasciner. Le présent livre vous offre le plaisir d'une lecture enrichissante des fantasmes entourant le personnage de la mère. A travers une lecture qui adopte la littéralité et qui s'ajuste aux méandres du texte durassien, l'auteur de ce livre veut contribuer à mieux comprendre les conflits et les désirs, les fantasmes et les images, qui entourent le rôle féminin par excellence qu'est la maternité.
The Mother in Thomas Mann’s Fiction
The thesis of A Gorgon’s mask: The Mother in Thomas Mann’s Fiction depends upon three psychoanalytic concepts: Freud’s early work on the relationship between the infant and its mother and on the psychology of artistic creation, Annie Reich’s analysis of the grotesque-comic sublimation, and Edmund Bergler’s analysis of writer’s block. Mann’s crisis of sexual anxiety in late adolescence is presented as the defining moment for his entire artistic life. In the throes of that crisis he included a sketch of a female as Gorgon in a book that would not escape his mother’s notice. But to defend himself from being overcome by the Gorgon-mother’s stare he employed the grotesque-comic sublimation, hiding the mother figure behind fictional characters physically attractive but psychologically repellent, all the while couching his fiction in an ironic tone that evoked humor, however lacking in humor the subtext might be. In this manner he could deny to himself that the mother figure always lurked in his work, and by that denial deny that he was a victim of oral regression. For, as Edmund Bergler argues, the creative writer who acknowledges his oral dependency will inevitably succumb to writer’s block. Mann’s late work reveals that his defense against the Gorgon is crumbling. In Doctor Faustus Mann portrays Adrian Leverkühn as, ultimately, the victim of oral regression; but the fact that Mann was able to compete the novel, despite severe physical illness and psychological distress, demonstrates that he himself was still holding writer’s block at bay. In Confessions of Felix Krull: Confidence Man, a narrative that he had abandoned forty years before, Mann was finally forced to acknowledge that he was depleted of creative vitality, but not of his capacity for irony, brilliantly couching the victorious return of the repressed in ambiguity. This study will be of interest to general readers who enjoy Mann’s narrative art, to students of Mann’s work, especially its psychological and mythological aspects, and to students of the psychology of artistic creativity.
Editor: Buford Norman
The essays in this volume investigate maternity and the figure of the mother in French literature from France, Switzerland, Quebec and Africa, from the seventeenth century to the present. Drawing on cultural history, psychoanalysis, and feminist theory, as well as more traditional methods, they present maternity as a source of frustration and of joy, mothers as repressed and revered, daughters as wounded and loving, sons as domineering and dependent. Indeed, few things are simple where mothers — and especially where writing about mothers — are concerned.
Editor: Herbert Rowland
The present volume is the first to address the interrelationship between Goethe’s scientific thought and work, his ideas on art and literary oeuvre, and chaos and complexity theories. The eleven studies assembled in it treat one or more elements or aspects of this interrelationship, ranging from basic concepts all the way to a model of an aesthetic-scientific methodology. In the process, the authors scrutinize chaos and complexity both as motif and motor of literary texts and nature within various contexts of past and present. The volume should be of interest to literary scholars, scientists, and philosophers of science, indeed, to all those who are interested in the continuities between the humanities and sciences, culture and nature.