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Neo-Muʿtazilismus?

Intention und Kontext im modernen arabischen Umgang mit dem rationalistischen Erbe des Islam

Series:

Thomas Hildebrandt

This book examines the modern Arab rediscovery of the Muʿtazila through a critical assessment of the concept of "Neo-Muʿtazilism" and by concentrating on the various intentions and contexts of the use of Muʿtazilite ideas.
The main part of the book analyzes five ways of understanding Mu'tazilite ideas — liberal, historic-materialist, political-Islamic, literary-exegetical and through comparison with the philosophie des valeurs — as well as one way of dealing with the school historically: the treatment of the miḥna.
The book discusses a wide range of authors of whom many, such as Aḥmad Amīn, Ḥusain Murūwa, Ḥasan Ḥanafī, Muḥammad ʿAmāra, Naṣr Abū Zaid und Muḥammad ʿĀbid al-Ğābirī, have had an important impact on modern Arab-Islamic thought. By also presenting authors such as Zuhdī Ğārallāh, Chikh Bouamrane, Rašīd al-Ḫayyūn, Amīn Nāyif Ḏiyāb, Samīḥ Duġaim, ʿĀdil al-ʿAwwā und Fahmī Ğadʿān, additional light is shed on a number of lesser known figures.

Die Araber und die antike Wissenschaftstheorie

[Übersetzung aus dem Ungarischen von Johanna Till und Gábor Kerekes]

Series:

Miklos Maróth

Die Araber und die antike Wissenschaftstheorie discusses the history of the development of Aristotelian argumentation in the Alexandrian neoplatonic school and in Arab philosophy, focussing on the Tabula Porphyriana. It treats the ever present role of specific questions in the Greek and Arab scholarly tradition.
In the first part the three problems of the Eisagoge are explored: whether it is, what it is, how it is. The author shows that these questions were interpreted differently by various philosophical schools. The book then discusses another group of issues ( whether it is, what it is, how and why it is), which determined the argumentation, the axiomatic ordering of the sciences, and concludes with a demonstration on the basis of concrete examples of how the fully-developed argumentation theory was employed in practice.

Series:

Rudolph

Al-Māturīdī (d. 944 CE), the prominent ḥanafī scholar from Samarqand, succeeded in formulating a theological doctrine which is widely accepted in Sunnī Islam to this day. The present volume examines his teachings by describing their principal characteristics and situating them in the history of kalām.
The first part investigates the development of ḥanafī thought in Transoxania before Māturīdī's time. The second part deals with the other religious groups (in particular the Mu‘tazilites) which emerged in this area during his lifetime. Part three shows how he explained and defended the position of his teachers. In doing so, he reformed their traditional views, thereby developing his own theology which then became the basis of a new tradition, viz. the Māturīdite school.

Feder, Tafel, Mensch

Al-ʿĀmirīs Kitāb al-Fuṣūl fī l-Maʿālim al-ilāhīya und die arabische Proklos-Rezeption im 10. Jh.

Series:

Elvira Wakelnig

This volume deals with the philosopher Abū l-Ḥasan al-ʽĀmirī (died 992) and his reception of Neoplatonism, focusing on his Kitāb al-Fuṣūl fī l-maʽālim al-ilāhīya, the Chapters on Metaphysical Topics (Arabic text with German translation).
The Chapters on Metaphysical Topics paraphrase sections of the Elements of Theology by the Neoplatonist Proclus (died 485) and are therefore part of the Arabic Procliana.
The commentary analyses al-ʽĀmirī’s combination of Greek philosophy with Islamic theology, especially the harmonization of philosophical and Qur’anic terminology (universal Intellect is the Pen, universal Soul the Tablet) and man’s position between the two worlds. On the basis of a textual comparison between al-ʽĀmirī’s work, the Greek text of Proclus and the Arabic writings of the Liber de Causis-tradition, the book argues for the existence of a “Ur- Liber de causis”.