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Interpreting the Past

Essays on Human, Primate, and Mammal Evolution

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Ediert von Daniel Lieberman, Richard W. Smith und Jay Kelley

This volume, published in honor of the occasion of David Pilbeam's 65th birthday, covers major topics in human, primate, and mammalian evolution, mostly from the Miocene to the present. The papers emphasize novel interpretations of several key areas of longstanding interest and importance, including Miocene biogeography and hominoid evolution, the origins of hominids, and new interpretations of the hominid fossil record.
In terms of content, most of the papers tackle key issues in the evolution of hominoids and hominids in terms of systematic paleoenvironmental and behavioral questions. More broadly, however, the papers explore the epistemological problems of how one interprets the past from the available data.

Revue Lusotopie

International Political Research on Spaces Stemming from Portuguese Colonization and History

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Ediert von Marissa Moorman und Kathleen Sheldon

Lusotopie is an international comparatist specialized journal devoted to political analysis of present-day spaces stemming from Portuguese history and colonization. It deals with general issues in political analysis (nationalism, ethnicity, neo-liberalism, State reform, federalism, gender, civil war, media, civil society, election; etc.): it provides an original approach within this heterogeneous postcolonial space on the four continents and in numerous diasporas. Founded in 1994, Lusotopie has published a diverse range of contributions from researchers of over 30 different nationalities, often from Southern countries. It has brought up an galitarian dialogue space due to systematic use of three international languages (French, Portuguese and English).

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Ediert von Proshanta Nandi und Shahid Shahidullah

The societies of the present world are experiencing many turbulent changes. New forces of change and modernization are driving people, business and cultures across borders. The world has become a home to a new generation of homo sapiens who are curious about others but, at the same time, cherish to preserve their own cultures. What is the nature of this evolving world society? Is the world driving toward a new global civilization—an "end of history"— or an inevitable civilizational clash?
The present volume has brought together leading scholars in the field to examine the concept of globalization, deliberate on the character of its multifaceted nature and expressions, and delineate its impact on the emerging world economy, politics, culture, and science. A number of substantive issues such as the emergence of new global economic inequality, culture and the role of the trans-nationals, nature of the emerging global environmental regimes, rise of the NICs, and the conflicting role of the nation-states in the face of the advancing forces of globalization are addressed. It is contended that globalization should be perceived neither as an unbounded economic progress nor as an expansion of western domination. Globalization is, rather, defined as a new development strategy--a process of change that can be planned, guided, and controlled. For national political and business leaders of the world, the volume provides a blueprint of the emerging areas of policy concerns and guidance. For the world of social science, it presents a road-map of the emerging intellectual issues and challenges.

Contributors are Alessandro Bonanno, Stephen W.K. Chiu, Douglas Constance, Richard J. Estes, R. Scott Frey, Archibald O. Haller, George A. Miller, Proshanta K. Nandi, Winifred R. Poster, J. Timmons Roberts, Shahid M. Shahidullah, Bam Dev Sharda, and Alvin Y. So.
Lusotopie is an international comparatist specialized journal devoted to political analysis of present-day spaces stemming from Portuguese history and colonization. It deals with general issues in political analysis (nationalism, ethnicity, neo-liberalism, State reform, federalism, gender, civil war, media, civil society, election; etc.): it provides an original approach within this heterogeneous postcolonial space on the four continents and in numerous diasporas. Founded in 1994, Lusotopie has published a diverse range of contributions from researchers of over 30 different nationalities, often from Southern countries. It has brought up an galitarian dialogue space due to systematic use of three international languages (French, Portuguese and English).

Lusotopie est une revue comparatiste internationale, dont le but est le développement de la recherche politique sur les espaces contemporains issus de l’histoire et de la colonisation, portugaises. Elle entend poser tous les problèmes généraux de l’analyse politique (nationalisme, ethnicité, néolibéralisme, réforme de l’État, fédéralisme, relations de genre, guerres civiles, médias, société civile, élections, etc.): son originalité est de les “traiter” au sein de cet espace postcolonial et composite, présent sur quatre continent s et dans de nombreuses diasporas. Paraissant depuis 1994, Lusotopie a publié des travaux d’auteurs de plus de trente nationalités, souvent originaires de pays du Sud et institué un espace de dialogue égalitaire grâce à son usage systématique de trois langues internationales (français, portugais et anglais).

Lusotopie é uma revista comparatista internacional cujo objectivo é o desenvolvimento da inves t igação polít ica sobre os espaços contemporâneos provenientes da história e da colonização, portuguesas. Propõe-se abordar os problemas gerais da análise política (nacionalismo, etnicidade, neoliberalismo, reforma do Estado, federalismo, relações de género, guerras civis, media, eleições, etc.): a originalidade da revista é a de tratar aqueles problemas no seio do espaço post-colonial e plural, presente em quatro continentes e em numerosas diásporas. Saindo desde 1994 Lusotopie publicou trabalhos de autores de mais de trinta nacionalidades, muitos dos quais naturais de países do Sul, e instituiu um espaço de diálogo egalitário graças ao uso sistemático de três línguas internacionais (francês, inglês e português).

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C.N. Dubelaar

The first scholarly studies on South American and Caribbean rock-carvings did not appear until the beginning of the twentieth century. Even today most archaeologists working in the field of South American and Caribbean prehistory neglect the testimony of petroglyphs. To remedy this situation, the author of the present work offers a critical summary of the crucial data for an analysis of South American and Antillean rock inscriptions. He discusses the techniques used in making the carvings, the nature of the sites, and the orientation of the inscriptions. He examines possible methods of dating the petroglyph, arguing that, beyond the observation that they are undoubtedly pre-Columbian, so far no firm conclusion to their relative or absolute dates can be drawn. Similar limitations apply to the interpretation of the rock inscriptions. Although one may glimpse possible pictorial, symbolic or social significations, no reliable conclusions can be drawn about their exact function and meaning, given the scarcity of data on the cultural background of the petroglyph carvers.
The author therefore proposes an alternative approach, isolating eighteen distinct motifs and thus classifying the South American and Antillean petroglyphs according to their geographical distribution. This type of analysis enables the inscriptions to be assigned to specific culture areas. The author concludes the study by suggesting a number of indispensable elements of future petroglyph inventories.

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Ediert von Wil Arts und Loek Halman

The comparative method is at the core of sociological inquiry and gained new importance, emphasis and practitioners particularly after the second world war as a consequence of a large variety of international and global scale developments.
The contributions to this book regard nations or countries as contextual units of analysis and treat them as variables. Theoretical explanations are presented of how social phenomena are systematically related to characteristics of the nation states and these explanations are tested empirically using the qualitative tools of mainstream sociology.
The chapters in this book can be useful to a broad audience and a range of social scientists who are interested in the understanding of contemporary social phenomena that are no longer limited to national borders but that are transnational or of a global order.

Contributors are Toril Aalberg, Wil Arts, Carole B. Burgoyne, Loek Halman, Piet Hermkens, Guillermina Jasso, Mebs Kanji, James R. Kluegel, Ola Listhaug, David S. Mason, Petr Matěju, Neil Nevitte, Thorleif Pettersson, David A. Routh, Svetlana Sidorenko-Stephenson, Johan Verweij, Bernd Wegener, and Peter Van Wijck.

Wolves from the Sea

Readings in the Anthropology of the Native Caribbean

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Ediert von Neil L. Whitehead

Wolves from the sea brings together the latest work of leading authorities on the archaeology, linguistics, history, and socio-cultural anthropology of native Caribbean groups, particularly that of the Island Carib. In each of these disciplines orthodox theories are critically assessed and new directions for interdisciplinary research suggested.

A central theme that emerges from this volume is the acknowledgement of the plurality of ethnic identities that greeted Columbus and a rejection of the way in which subsequent anthropology has blindly accepted colonial ethnological schema.

The seven contributions in this volume represent the outcome of an international symposium, held in Leiden. The author are Arie Boomert, Berend J. Hoff, Jalil Sued Badillo, Neil L. Whitehead, Peter Hulme, Jay B. Haviser and Charles J.M.R.C. Gullick.

Conflict and Consensus

A study of values and attitudes in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

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Bernadette Hayes und Richard Sinnott

Ediert von Tony Fahey

This study presents a detailed comparison of cultural values and attitudes in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is based on survey data covering the period from the 1970s to 2003 but focusing especially on the European Values Study (EVS) as fielded in the two parts of Ireland in 1999-2000. The study confirms the deep divisions in identity and political allegiance that separate the Catholic and Protestant communities in Northern Ireland. But it also shows that on many issues, Protestants and Catholics on the island of Ireland are culturally more similar to each other than to any other national population in Europe, including Britain.

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Glassman

One of the basic theories of politics, put forth by Aristotle centuries ago, is the theory of the middle class and its causal link with democracy. According to Aristotle, a large, prosperous middle class may mediate between rich and poor, creating the structural foundation upon which democratic political processes may operate.
Beyond Aristotelian theory, the specifically commercial nature of the middle class is also made central, as the democratic institutions of law, power limitation, and electoral participation were carried by a commercial middle class.
This volume traces the development of democracy and the rise of the commercial middle class from ancient Greece to Renaissance Italy, to post-feudal Europe. Socialism, communism and fascism are discussed as reactions to capitalist-democracy. The book concludes with an analysis of the structural and cultural bases of democracy.

Value Contrasts and Consensus in Present-Day Europe

Painting Europe’s Moral Landscapes

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Ediert von Wil Arts und Loek Halman

People's fundamental values can be conceived of as conceptions of what is desirable. They influence their selection from available modes, means and ends of action. Because of the societal importance of values they deserve scholarly attention. This volume inquires into the values present-day Europeans cherish by empirically analyzing the data of 2008/2010 wave of the European Values Study and explaining the consensus and contrasts in value orientations found. The contributors to this volume try to capture the diversities and similarities in value orientations between contemporary European countries in a range of life-spheres by unravelling context and composition effects. They are in search of evidence that either country level factors such as institutional arrangements or the composition of the populations of countries in terms of gender, age, socio-economic status, religion etcetera have the greatest impact. By doing so they paint the moral landscapes of Europe today.