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The Socratic Problem

The History - The Solutions. From the18th Century to the present time; 61 extracts from 54 authors in their historical context

M. Montuori

This work is intended to offer to anyone still intending to devote himself to the Socratic problem a reliable means of approach by providing, first of all, a complete history of the problem itself, from its first appearance during Socrates' lifetime up to the present day. The book provides not only the history of the problem, but also the essential documents, accompanied by brief explana-tory and bibliographical contextual notes, to be read in counterpoint with the chapters of its history. These documents consist of 61 extracts from 54 authors, from Fréret onwards, in other words, from the beginning of the history of the problem of the socratic sources, which arose in the Age of Enlightenment, down to the present day. These extracts are not intended to form a collection of the various representations, interpretations or images of Socrates which succeeded each other in the history of socratic historiography; instead, the aim is to present, in a logically and chronologically consistent order, the various ways in which the problem of the sources of Socratism was presented and resolved in the course of two hundred years of study and research on the 'case' of Socrates.

Parmenides beyond the Gates

The Divine Revelation on Being, Thinking, and the Doxa



One of the main problems in the the study of Parmenides’ poem is establishing the meaning of e‰nai, ‘to be’. Scholars often simply take it to mean: ‘to exist’, ‘to be the case’, ‘to be so’, or regard it as a copula. It’s better to start by fathoming what Parmenides himself has to say about to be and about Being. This cannot be done without recognizing the logical pattern in his poem. Another main problem is: what does not-Being mean? Is the so-called Doxa - as not-Being - a non-existing, hallucinatory world, an illusion, a fata morgana? Or is it only a detector of lies? In the present work the view will be advocated that the Doxa offers the description of a really existing world. A specific merit of this book is that all the problems involved will be examined in continuous debate with what scholars have offered as solutions so far.


Edited by Tarán

The Cosmic Republic

Notes for a non-peripatetic History of the Birth of Philosophy in Greece

A. Capizzi

According to Aristotle, philosophy had come into being in the VIth century with Thales, just as a mere, disinterested pursuit of truth, a curiosity for great problems (those even-tually called "metaphysical" ones) which were substantially identical with those which Aristotle himself and his school were now raising. This abstract reading is very similar to that which views Greek poets as inspired by "eternal beauty" or by "art's for art sake" and which is nowadays completely discredited and given up by scholars of the history of literature. Against this view the present text pro-poses a new reading of the "archaic" presocratic scientists: in fact, it is about those "sages" who lived on the bound-aries of the Greek-speaking world before the concentration of such people in Periclean Athens. They were closely linked to their native towns (Miletus, Ephesus, Croto, Vele, Acragas) where they held high office; here there oral teaching and the public reading of their texts were followed closely by their fellow citizens. Thus the picture of the "cosmic republic" arises: to the "cosmic monarchy" of Homer and Hesiod (the mythical world with Zeus as the king, gods as the ministers and nature as the subject) a different mythical world succeeds. Here the earth, the sea, the sky, the human body and, generally, the "existing thing", all behave like isonomic ("republican") towns or like the governing body of these towns. Philosophy will arise later, in Athens of the Vth century.

Aristotle Poetics

Editio Maior of the Greek Text with Historical Introductions and Philological Commentaries


Leonardo Tarán and Dimitri Gutas

This important new editio maior of Aristotle's Poetics, based on all the primary sources, is a major contribution to scholarship. The introductory chapters provide important new insights about the transmission of the text to the present day and especially the significance of the Syro-Arabic tradition. The Greek text is accompanied by a detailed critical apparatus as well as Notes to the Text; in addition there is a Graeco-Arabic critical apparatus and commentary. An Index of Greek Words, Indices, and a Bibliography complement the work. This publication will be an indispensable tool for all Aristotelian scholars, historians of Greek literature and criticism, and specialists of the transmission and reception of classical works.


The papers collected in this volume deal mainly with ancient Greek or Roman philosophy. They range chronologically from the 5th century BC to the 6th century AD, and in them the evidence is fully presented and discussed. They are concerned mainly with the Presocratics, Plato, Aristotle, the Early Academy, the Platonic and Aristotelian traditions, especially as represented by Neoplatonism. In addition, there are a few more general articles. The first deals with the saying "Amicus Plato sed magis amica veritas" and studies the different forms of this proverb from the time of Plato and Aristotle to Cervantes in the 17th century. Another one discusses the rather complex transmission of Plato's alleged epitaph. A third one deals in detail with an incomplete but interesting allegorical interpretation of Heliodorus' Aethiopica.


Edited by Sharon Weisser and Naly Thaler

Strategies of Polemics in Greek and Roman Philosophy brings together papers written by specialists in the field of ancient philosophy on the topic of polemics. Despite the central role played by polemics in ancient philosophy, the forms and mechanisms of philosophical polemics are not usually the subject of systematic scholarly attention. The present volume seeks to shed new light on familiar texts by approaching them from this neglected angle. The contributions address questions such as: What is the role of polemic in a philosophical discourse? What were the polemical strategies developed by ancient philosophers? To what extent did polemics contribute to the shaping of important philosophical doctrines or standpoint?


Gertjan Verhasselt

This book is the first volume to appear in print since 1999 in Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker Continued, which continues Felix Jacoby’s monumental but uncompleted collection of fragmentary Greek historiography. It is part of section IV B (History of Literature, Music, Art and Culture) and provides a critical edition, translation and commentary of the fragments of Dikaiarchos, a pupil of Aristotle from late fourth century BCE. Dikaiarchos wrote about cultural history, literature, philosophers, politics, geography, ethics and the soul. The book advances the state of the art by presenting a new text and demarcation of the fragments, a study of the method of the authors citing Dikaiarchos, new readings and interpretations of the fragments and a reassessment of Dikaiarchos’ value as a historian.

Logic and Language in the Middle Ages

A Volume in Honour of Sten Ebbesen


Edited by Jakob Leth Fink, Heine Hansen and Ana María Mora-Marquez

During a career spanning four decades, Sten Ebbesen has produced a body of work which stands as a remarkable and important contribution to the field of medieval philosophy. Combining philological expertise and textual work with a deep philosophical understanding and a broad historical outlook, his vast output deftly penetrates and analyses often difficult and complex issues. The present volume pays homage to this body of work by investigating topics relevant to its two most central themes: logical and linguistic analysis. True to the work it seeks to honour, these closely connected themes are explored from both historical and philosophical perspectives and within both the Latin and Greek philosophical traditions.
Contributors are Fabrizio Amerini, E. Jennifer Ashworth, E.P. Bos, Laurent Cesalli, Alessandro Conti, Silvia Donati, Sten Ebbesen, Jakob L. Fink, K. Margareta Fredborg, Frédéric Goubier, Heine Hansen, Katerina Ierodiakonou, Yukio Iwakuma, Alain de Libera, C.H. Kneepkens, Simo Knuuttila, Roberto Lambertini, John Magee, John Marenbon, Costantino Marmo,Christopher J. Martin, Ana Maria Mora-Márquez, Calvin Normore, Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe, Mary Sirridge, Paul Thom, Christina Thomsen Thörnqvist and Luisa Valente.

Mind and Modality

Studies in the History of Philosophy in Honour of Simo Knuuttila


Edited by Vesa Hirvonen, Toivo Holopainen and Miira Tuominen

This volume offers a wide-ranging and profound collection of essays on philosophical psychology and conceptions of modality from antiquity to the present day, with some essays on the philosophy of religion as well.
The contributions deal with mind’s cognitive and emotional functions, the modal notions and the philosophical approaches to religion as well as logical, semantic and epistemological issues concerning them. Of twenty-one contributions, six focus on ancient thought, nine on medieval thought, and six on modern and contemporary thought.
The book illustrates how philosophical theories of mind and modalities developed through the centuries in western philosophy. It is particularly useful for those interested in the analysis of emotions, their cognitive bearing and ethical significance.

Contributors include: Lilli Alanen, Joël Biard, David Charles, Ingolf U. Dalferth, Sten Ebbesen, Eyjólfur Kjalar Emilsson, Jaakko Hintikka, Vesa Hirvonen, Toivo J. Holopainen, Heikki Kirjavainen, Taneli Kukkonen, Henrik Lagerlund, Ilkka Niiniluoto, C.G. Normore, Martha C. Nussbaum, Marco M. Olivetti, Risto Saarinen, Juha Sihvola, Miira Tuominen, Reijo Työrinoja, and Mikko Yrjönsuuri.

Publications by Simo Knuuttila:

• “Duns Scotus and the Foundations of Logical Modalities”, in: Ludger Honnefelder, Rega Wood and Mechthild Dreyer (eds.), John Duns Scotus: Metaphysics and Ethics, ISBN: 978 90 04 10357 3
• “Necessities in Buridan’s Natural Philosophy”, in: J.M.M.H. Thijssen and Jack Zupko (eds.), Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of John Buridan, ISBN: 978 90 04 11514 9