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Models and simulations have become part and parcel of advanced learning environments, performance technologies and knowledge management systems. This book series will address the nature and types of models and simulations from multiple perspectives and in a variety of contexts in order to provide a foundation for their effective integration into teaching and learning. While much has been written about models and simulations, little has been written about the underlying instructional design principles and the varieties of ways for effective use of models and simulations in learning and instruction. This book series will provide a practical guide for designing and using models and simulations to support learning and to enhance performance and it will provide a comprehensive framework for conducting research on educational uses of models and simulations. A unifying thread of this series is a view of models and simulations as learning and instructional objects. Conceptual and mathematical models and their uses will be described. Examples of different types of simulations, including discrete event and continuous process simulations, will be elaborated in various contexts. A rationale and methodology for the design of interactive models and simulations will be presented, along with a variety of uses ranging from assessment tools to simulation games. The key role of models and simulations in knowledge construction and representation will be described, and a rationale and strategy for their integration into knowledge management and performance support systems will provided.

Series:

Jan H.G. Klabbers

The purpose of this unique book is to outline the core of game science by presenting principles underlying the design and use of games and simulations. Game science covers three levels of discourse: the philosophy of science level, the science level, and the application or practical level. The framework presented will help to grasp the interplay between forms of knowledge and knowledge content, interplay that evolves through the action of the players.
Few scientists have witnessed such a radical change in their area of research and practice as those who engaged in play and gaming since the 1950s. Since that time game scientists from a whole variety of disciplines started adopting gaming and simulation methods in their research. Rapid advances in information technology and computer science are producing a tool rich environment for the design and use of games, and for humanities studies of games as digital arts and interactive narratives. Game science is advancing through these waves of change, driven by the digital computer game industry, enhanced through computer and information science, as well as through advances in professional gaming such as in education, public and business management, policy development, health care, eco-systems management, and so on.
When asking game scientists about the core of their science, one should expect to hear diverging answers. The common questions about the core of game and play are not new. They refer to: What is the meaning of game and play? What is real and what is virtual reality? How could we build simple and effective games from complex social systems? Are we able to bring forward a general theory of games? Are we able to help players (social actors) to find smart solutions and approaches to complex issues? How do games enhance learning and how do they improve our thinking capacity and action repertoire?
Current answers to these questions are scattered and inadequate. This book offers a frame-of-reference that will enlighten the characteristics of particular games and simulations from a common perspective. The author pays less attention to instrumental reasoning than on theoretical and methodological questions. Answers will provide a suitable context for addressing design science and analytical science approaches to artifact design and assessment, and theory development and testing. Due to the high diversity of approaches that game science has to accommodate the author chooses an interdisciplinary and where appropriate a meta-disciplinary approach.

Series:

Douglas M. Towne

This volume presents an object-oriented approach for developing interactive graphical device models and for delivering instruction and performance aiding with such models. The volume attempts to illustrate, via a series of examples, why and how the particular design given satisfies relatively intensive and diverse instructional and performance-aiding demands with surprising ease.
The early chapters focus on the fundamental design concepts upon which all applications stand, including a consistent design of the basic elements - objects - from which all models are produced; a clear separation between the model of the target domain and the instructional processes; and, wherever possible, automatic generation of user interactions, based on the structure and content of the model.
Each of the later chapters focus on one particular application area, including explication of complex system functions, diagnostic instruction and guidance, procedural guidance, scenario-based instruction, and simulation-based technical documentation.
The volume is intended to serve instructional designers, curriculum developers, and software implementers, an ambitious scope that is hopefully achieved via the early presentation of critical “nuts-and-bolts”, followed by discussions of specific training and aiding environments that can be more selectively considered. The more complex examples presented in the volume are available for active operation and analysis in a Web site developed for the reader’s use.

Learning-Through-Touring

Mobilising Learners and Touring Technologies to Creatively Explore the Built Environment

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Juliet Sprake

Learning-through-Touring uncovers ways in which people interact with the built environment by exploring the spaces around, between and within buildings. The key idea embodied in the book is that learning through touring is haptic—the learner is a physical, cognitive and emotional participant in the process. It also develops the concept that tours, rather than being finished products, are designed to evolve through user participation and over time. Part One of the book presents a series of analytical investigations into theories and practices of learning and touring that have then been developed to produce a set of conceptual methods for tour design. Projects that have tried and tested these methods are described in Part Two. Technologies that have been utilised as portable tools for learning-through-touring are illustrated both through historical and contemporary practices. In all of this, there is an underlying belief that what is formally presented to us by ‘authorities’ is open to self-discovery, questioning and independent enquiry. The book is particularly relevant for those seeking innovative ways to explore and engage with the built environment; mobile learning educators; learning departments in museums, galleries and historic buildings; organisations involved in ‘bridging the gap’ between architecture and public understanding and anyone who enjoys finding out new things about their environment.

Finnish Innovations and Technologies in Schools

A Guide towards New Ecosystems of Learning

Edited by Hannele Niemi, Jari Multisilta, Lasse Lipponen and Marianna Vivitsou

This book combines several perspectives on the steps the Finnish educational system has taken to provide students with the skills and competences needed for living in today’s society and in the future. The ecosystem is used as a metaphor for the educational system. The Finnish system aims to achieve sustainable education by ensuring that the system is simultaneously interconnected and open to transformations.
The book describes how a flexible curriculum system is succeeding without the pressures of high-stake testing. It also illustrates how the ongoing curriculum reform of the basic education is working. The book brings together knowledge gained in schools through the cooperation of researchers, teachers, school principals, the public sector, and private companies. The book presents case studies of technology integration aimed at crossing boundaries in formal and informal learning settings, locally and globally. The contributors address 21st-century needs and requirements through learner-driven knowledge creation, collaboration, networking, and digital literacies. It opens new scenarios of how to apply digital storytelling and games connecting fun, motivation, and learning. The strong message is that, through collaboration and networking, we can create an educational ecosystem that supports different learners.

Edited by Eyvind Elstad

For more than three decades, researchers, policy makers and educationalists have all harboured great expectations towards the use of technology in schools. This belief has received a hard knock after an OECD 2015 report has shown that computers do not improve pupil results: Investing heavily in school computers and classroom technology does not improve pupils’ performance, and frequent use of computers in schools is more likely to be associated with lower results. Educational technology has raised false expectations! The prevailing view of educational technology has shifted. Nevertheless, hardly anyone wishes for a situation in which pupils do not use technology in the service of learning: education is supposed to prepare for the future, and it is evident that technology is one of the answers to the challenges of the future. Many school professionals, however, feel uncertain how schools should tackle challenges relating to the distractions that hamper in-depth learning, easy cut-and-paste solutions and online offensiveness that occur while pupils are at school. The initiative to provide a tablet or PC for each pupil is continuing despite a lack of evidence that it is beneficial to learning. School professionals and policy makers are seeking answers to the question of how schools ought to relate to challenges created by the use of technology in the school.
This book is an attempt to raise questions and start a debate. It presents new research relevant to a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities inherent in educational technology and strategies are discussed in relation to handling these challenges. Rather than presenting ready solutions, the book attempts to provoke debate and to contribute to a firmer grasp on reality. The chapters in this volume offer an up-to-date discussion. The authors do not present a common front on the complex question of the proper use of technology in the school but instead present a diversity of arguments and viewpoints.

Reflections on Technology for Educational Practitioners

Philosophers of Technology Inspiring Technology Education

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Edited by John R. Dakers, Jonas Hallström and Marc J. de Vries

Reflections on Technology for Educational Practitioners analyzes the use of philosophy of technology in technology education and unpacks the concept of ‘reflective practitioners’ (Donald Schön) in the field. Philosophy of technology develops ideas and concepts that are valuable for technology education because they show the basic characteristics of technology that are important if technology education is to present a fair image of what technology is. Each chapter focuses on the oeuvre of one particular philosopher of which a description is given and then insights are offered about technology as developed by that philosopher and how it has been fruitful for technology education in all its aspects: motives for having it in the curriculum, goals for technology education, content of the curriculum, teaching strategies, knowledge types taught, ways of assessing, resources, educational research for technology education, amongst others.

Edited by Eyvind Elstad

Technology has become ubiquitous in nearly every contemporary situation, while digital media have acquired considerable importance in the lives of young people. Alongside their interest in digital media, schooling constitutes a core component of the life of children and adolescents. Youth’s use of digital media creates tensions between traditions and expectations of renewal within the school. The once-sharp divide between school and leisure time is eroding. How will the school as an institution relate to this comprehensive process of change known as the digital revolution? How can the school build a bridge between the world of youth and school material to enable students to learn in a new digital age? This endeavor is named polycontextual bridging in this book. What are the good examples of polycontextual bridging? What novel educational goals can be achieved by net-related activities when incorporated into the school, and how can out-of-school learning be successfully framed by educational purposes? These questions are addressed from different perspectives by several scholars in this book. The chapters in this volume offer the most thorough, up-to-date discussion on the challenges of technology use in school education. In tackling the critical issues created by technology, this book provides an important resource for student teachers, teachers, education scholars and those interested in a critical examination of digital expectations and experiences in school education.
This book is motivated by a pressing need to come to grips with the dilemmas caused by an apparent clash of learning cultures in the individual classroom, in the schools, in the education of teachers, and in the institutions of teacher education. The book is also a tribute to Gavriel Salomon and his research on the cognitive effects of media’s symbol systems, media and learning, and the design of cognitive tools and technology-afforded learning environments. The book also contains his masterpiece “It’s not just the tool, but the educational rationale that counts”. Further, three internationally recognized experts—Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and Daniel Bar-Tal—describe Salomon’s remarkable academic contributions.
This book is an attempt to explicate, illustrate, and critically examine the idea of polycontextual bridging between youth’s leisure cultures and school material to enable students to learn in a new digital age. The authors do not present a common front on the complex question of the proper use of information and communication technology in the school but instead present a diversity of arguments and viewpoints. The book is an attempt to raise questions and start a debate.

What's a Cellphilm?

Integrating Mobile Phone Technology into Participatory Visual Research and Activism

Edited by Katie MacEntee, Casey Burkholder and Joshua Schwab-Cartas

What’s a Cellphilm? explores cellphone video production for its contributions to participatory visual research. There is a rich history of integrating participants’ videos into community-based research and activism. However, a reliance on camcorders and digital cameras has come under criticism for exacerbating unequal power relations between researchers and their collaborators. Using cellphones in participatory visual research suggests a new way forward by working with accessible, everyday technology and integrating existing media practices. Cellphones are everywhere these days. People use mobile technology to visually document and share their lives. This new era of democratised media practices inspired Jonathan Dockney and Keyan Tomaselli to coin the term cellphilm (cellphone + film). The term signals the coming together of different technologies on one handheld device and the emerging media culture based on people’s use of cellphones to create, share, and watch media.
Chapters present practical examples of cellphilm research conducted in Canada, Hong Kong, Mexico, the Netherlands and South Africa. Together these contributions consider several important methodological questions, such as: Is cellphilming a new research method or is it re-packaged participatory video? What theories inform the analysis of cellphilms? What might the significance of frequent advancements in cellphone technology be on cellphilms? How does our existing use of cellphones inform the research process and cellphilm aesthetics? What are the ethical dimensions of cellphilm use, dissemination, and archiving? These questions are taken up from interdisciplinary perspectives by established and new academic contributors from education, Indigenous studies, communication, film and media studies.

Emerging Trends in Learning Analytics

Leveraging the Power of Education Data

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Edited by Myint Swe Khine

The term 'learning analytics' is defined as the measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of information about learners and their contexts for the purposes of understanding and optimizing learning. In recent years learning analytics has emerged as a promising area of research that trails the digital footprint of the learners and extracts useful knowledge from educational databases to understand students’ progress and success. With the availability of an increased amount of data, potential benefits of learning analytics can be far-reaching to all stakeholders in education including students, teachers, leaders, and policymakers. Educators firmly believe that, if properly harnessed, learning analytics will be an indispensable tool to enhance the teaching-learning process, narrow the achievement gap, and improve the quality of education.

Many investigations have been carried out and disseminated in the literature and studies related to learning analytics are growing exponentially. This book documents recent attempts to conduct systematic, prodigious and multidisciplinary research in learning analytics and present their findings and identify areas for further research and development. The book also unveils the distinguished and exemplary works by educators and researchers in the field highlighting the current trends, privacy and ethical issues, creative and unique approaches, innovative methods, frameworks, and theoretical and practical aspects of learning analytics.

Contributors are: Arif Altun, Alexander Amigud, Dongwook An, Mirella Atherton, Robert Carpenter, Martin Ebner, John Fritz, Yoshiko Goda, Yasemin Gulbahar, Junko Handa, Dirk Ifenthaler, Yumi Ishige, Il-Hyun Jo, Kosuke Kaneko, Selcan Kilis, Daniel Klasen, Mehmet Kokoç, Shin'ichi Konomi, Philipp Leitner, ChengLu Li, Min Liu, Karin Maier, Misato Oi, Fumiya Okubo, Xin Pan, Zilong Pan, Clara Schumacher, Yi Shi, Atsushi Shimada, Yuta Taniguchi, Masanori Yamada, and Wenting Zou.