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The Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union

Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community

Edited by Finn Laursen and Sophie Vanhoonacker

The radical changes taking place in the international scene during the late 1980s have presented the European Communities with important new challenges. The twelve Member States agreed that the only way to respond effectively to this new situation was to speed up the European integration process, and in December 1990 two Intergovernmental Conferences were inaugurated, focusing respectively on the development of an Economic and Monetary Union and a Political Union. It was the difficult task of the Luxembourg and Dutch Presidencies to channel the often very diverging positions of the different actors in the process into one coherent set of amendments to the Treaties forming the European Communities.
This publication examines the positions which the different Member States, the Commission and the European Parliament have been defending in the Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union and more particularly with regard to one of the most sensitive topics under discussion, namely the development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The introduction places the debate on the development of a Political Union and a CFSP in an historical perspective and gives an overview of the progression of the negotiations. The concluding chapter presents a general framework for better understanding of the course and results of the negotiations, and a critical evaluation of the outcome. The annexes reproduce the main proposals on the development of a CFSP submitted to the Conference.

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Edited by Saul Mullard

In Critical Readings on the History of Tibetan Foreign Relations Saul Mullard has presented some of the world’s leading academic contributions to the history of Tibetan contacts with other nations and states. This selection of key texts manages to chart the historical development of Tibet and her position in the politics and history of Central, South and East Asia. Beginning with the Tibetan Imperialperiod, and ending with Tibet’s contemporary position in international relations, this collection explores the important linguistic, diplomatic, political, and religious connections that shaped the history and culture of, not only Tibet, but also that of Central Asia, Mongolia, China and India. This publication provides both established and new scholars a unique and valuable reference work on Tibet’s longstanding cultural, religious and linguistic relationships and connections with her neighbours.

Contributors include: Christopher Beckwith, Tsughito Takeuchi, Elliot Sperling, Karl-Heinz Everding, Roberto Vitali, Luciano Petech, Leonard van der Kuijp, Peter Sschweiger, Tsering Shakya, Melvyn Goldstein, Dawa Norbu, Alex McKay, Hsiao-Ting Lin amongst others.

Yugoslavia Through Documents

From its Creation to its Dissolution

Edited by Snežana Trifunovska

This book contains more than 360 documents relevant to the international legal position of the Yugoslav territories in the 19th century, the creation of Yugoslavia as a common state of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, 1918, its constitutional development, and the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia and the creation of the new states of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It includes documents from the beginning of the 19th century showing the international legal position of the Yugoslav territories under the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, the independence of Serbia and Montenegro, recognized by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, and the major events in the history of the creation of Yugoslavia as a joint state of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, in 1918, concerning both its international position and its constitutional organization. The process of the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (covering the period from 1990 to September 1, 1993) is presented through reproduced documents of international organizations (United Nations, European Community, Western European Union, Organization of Islamic Conference, etc.), of the different conferences and forums (CSCE, Group of Seven, etc.) and documents issued by Yugoslav organs and the organs of new states of the former Yugoslavia. The book also includes documents of a constitutional nature concerning the creation of the new states of Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
It provides researchers in the field of international law, political science of history with documentary information involving international legal and constitutional aspects relating to Yugoslavia.

Edited by Eytan Gilboa

This is the first book to focus on media and conflict - primarily international conflict - from multidisciplinary, cross-national and cross-cultural perspectives. Twenty-two contributors from around the globe present original and thought provoking research on media and conflict in the United States, Central America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Russia, and Asia.
Media and Conflict includes works both on the traditional print and electronic media and on new media including the Internet. It explores the role media play in different phases of conflict determined by goal and structure including conflict management, conflict resolution, and conflict transformation.


Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

Efficacy and Efficiency in Multilateral Policy Formation

The Experience of Three Arms Control Negotiations: Geneva, Stockholm, Vienna

Rudolf Th. Jurrjens and Jan Sizoo

This new work examines three important case-studies of international conference diplomacy concerning military security, as presented at the semi-universal Geneva negotiations on the Chemical Weapons Convention (1992), the regional Stockholm conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs, 1986) and the Vienna bloc-to-bloc talks between East and West on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR, 1989). The authors describe in great detail the course and results of these conferences, and make a comparison of the negotiating processes before and after the abolition of the Warsaw Treaty Organization after the political events of 1989 in Eastern Europe.
The central terms underlying this study are defined within a newly developed comprehensive theoretical framework that is used to analyze the three negotiating processes. In the final chapter a number of concrete recommendations are made which aim to increase the efficacy and efficiency of future multilateral negotiations.

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Edited by Maruice Bertrand and Daniel Warner

This book is based on a meeting, held in Geneva from 27 February to 1 March 1995, which challenged the fundamental conceptions behind the original United Nations by launching an entirely new Charter, written by Maurice Bertrand, for a worldwide organization which could replace the UN, the Bretton Woods organizations and the specialised agencies.
The `Bertrand Proposal', the written commentaries which emphasize different aspects of the proposal, and a summary of the discussions are published in this book. The `Bertrand Proposal' is a major contribution to future research and analysis of international organization and organizations and to the attempts to resolve the present crisis of the international system. The book concludes that since the type of threats against peace, economic security and social development have changed, and the international community has not formulated an adequate response, it is up to a worldwide organization to try to organize the prevention of crises and conflicts.

S. Akweenda

International law is not static; it develops constantly. Namibia is classic case, illustrating the changing law of nations. International Law and the Protection of Namibia's Territorial Integrity: Boundaries and Territorial Claims demonstrates this with an analysis of the legal and factual elements present in the creation, boundaries and territorial claims of Namibia, and the determinations of the League of Nations and the political organs of the United Nations which developed and clarified the rules of international law.
Nambia's unique international status and diplomatic history requires the consideration of a large number of different topics within public international law. Some of these issues are very complex and technical, as they involve major questions of international law and politics. Through the use of primary sources, case law, state practice and the opinions of eminent jurists, the author addresses these challenging and revealing issues.
Anyone interested in public international law, international relations, political science, history, or geography will appreciate the way that this work covers the interesting and informative changes in this revealing nation.

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Edited by Peter R. Baehr, Lalaine Sadiwa, Jacqueline Smith and Annelies Bosch

This edition of the Yearbook on Human Rights in Developing Countries contains contributions on the role of the right to development in the development assistance policies of Norway and of the European Union. These thematic studies will help to provide a better perspective on the place of the right to development, a human right which was recognised by the General Assembly of the United Nations back in 1986. The Yearbook also contains seven country reports, which assess human rights trends in countries in the South, covering civil and political as well as economic, social and cultural rights during the period 1993-1995. The reports follow a common structure to allow for comparisons among countries.
The present volume contains reports on Bhutan, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, India, Mexico and Uganda.
The Yearbook on Human Rights in Developing Countries is a joint project of the Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen; the Danish Centre of Human Rights, Copenhagen; the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, Oslo; the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Lund; the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (BIM), Vienna; and the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM), Utrecht.

United Nations

The United Nations held a week-long Congress on Public International Law at its headquarters in New York in 1995 - the year of the celebration of the Organization's fiftieth anniversary - under the general theme `Towards the Twenty-first Century: International Law as a Language for International Relations'. The purpose of the Congress was thus to assist the international community, and in particular the legal profession, to meet the challenges and expectations of the present-day world. Views were expressed, and exchanged, on the codification, progressive development and implementation of public international law, both in theory and in practice, as well as on its teaching and dissemination.
The Proceedings of the United Nations Congress contain the presentations and lectures of well-known jurists and professors - in the language given (English, French or Spanish) - as well as discussions that took place after the lectures. Subject matter includes: (1) The principles of international law: theoretical and practical aspects of their promotion and implementation; (2) Means of peaceful settlement of disputes between States, including resort to and full respect for the International Court of Justice; (3) Conceptual and practical aspects of the codification and progressive development of international law: new developments and priorities; (4) New approaches to research, education and training in the field of international law and its wider appreciation; and (5) Towards the twenty-first century: new challenges and expectations.

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Wakamizu Tsutsui

In view of the practices of the Second World War, international society could no longer be under the principles of traditional international law. The United Nations was conceived to preserve peace through the execution of "no use of force". To meet the reality of wartime collaboration in each region, it adopted self-defense as the basis for individual action. The postwar international legal order has been realized through self-defense as an intermediate function between the individual and collective, as provided under article 51 of the UN Charter.
Japan recovered her independence by concluding a Security Treaty with the United States based on the right of self-defense. Even after the conclusion of the Cold War, they have chosen to strengthen the Treaty rather than give effect to Japan's "Peace Constitution". Other states are also caught up in the same current, taking actions not precluded by the UN Charter. Whatever regime should follow the present one, it will draw more on the humanity principle based on "freedom of conscience".
This work should be read by anyone interested in the development of international law and its influence on international relations.