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Imperialism at Sea

Naval Strategic Thought, the Ideology of Sea Power, and the Tirpitz Plan, 1875-1914


Rolf Hobson

Was Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz' plan for naval expansion and the development of a "risk fleet" as a way to position Wilhelmine Germany as a world power to rival Britain so unique? This comparative study of the modern naval strategy of Germany, Britain, France, and the United States seeks to answer that question. First, Hobson is the only naval scholar to simultaneously compare the "Tirpitz Plan" with plans of the other leading nations of that time. Second, Hobson also interacts with how other scholars have assessed the complex interplay between naval history--both in and outside Germany--maritime law, and naval strategy. Hobson offers a unique interpretation of the causes and objectives of the German Imperial Navy at the end of the nineteenth century, forces that ultimately led to the First World War.

Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf

Architect of the Apocalypse


Lawrence Sondhaus

Did you ever wonder how and why Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852-1925) earned his reputation for brilliance, while failing so miserably during the First World War?
In examining Conrad’s life and career, including his years as a military writer, teacher of tactics, and a peacetime troop commander before 1906, this first modern biography offers a fascinating and impressive explanation of his thoughts and actions.
Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852-1925) served as Austro-Hungarian chief of the general staff between 1906 and 1917, and was a leading figure in the origins and conduct of the First World War. In no other country did a single general serve as the leading prewar tactician, prewar and wartime strategist, and wartime army commander. Because Conrad filled all of these roles in Austria-Hungary, he had no equal among the military men leading the old order of Europe to destruction in 1914-1918.

From Liberal Democracy to Fascism

Legal and Political Thought in the Weimar Republic


Peter Caldwell and William Scheuerman

The Weimar Republic – from 1919 until 1933, when Hitler came into power – witnessed crucial debates on law and politics. These debates are reexamined in this book. Were, for example, democratic rules and procedures an adequate basis for democracy, as Hugo Preuss and Hans Kelsen suggested? Or should constitutional law elaborate the deeper, basic principles embedded in the democratic constitution itself, as Hermann Heller argued? Was the president the immediate “guardian of the constitution”, as Carl Schmitt’s concept of “representation” suggested? Or was Schmitt’s concept itself subject to Walter Benjamin’s critique of the aura of authenticity?
These, and other typical Weimar-era debates helped shape West German constitutionalism. The former labor lawyer on the left Ernst Fraenkel, for example, began to develop a general theory of dictatorship mass democracy while in exile, which influenced the new discipline of political science after the war. Similarly, Gerhard Leibholz, an anti-positivist lawyer in Weimar, served on the first Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany, helping to consolidate its new constitutional culture.

The Rose Cross and the Age of Reason

Eighteenth-century Rosicrucianism in Central Europe and its Relationship to the Enlightenment


Christopher McIntosh

The Rose Cross deals with the interaction between two movements of thought in eighteenth-century Germany: the philosophy of the Enlightenment, and the complex of ideas known as Rosicrucian. Dating from the early seventeenth century and drawing on Pietism, Freemasonry, Kabbalah and alchemy, the Rosicrucianism movement enjoyed a revival in Germany during the eighteenth century.
Historians have often depicted this neo-Rosicrucianism as a Counter-Enlightenment force. Dr. McIntosh argues rather that it was part of a "third force", which allied itself sometimes with the Enlightenment, sometimes with the Counter-Enlightenment.
This book is the first in-depth, comprehensive study of the German Rosicrucian revival and in particular of the order known as the Golden and Rosy Cross (Gold und Rosenkreuz). Drawing on hitherto unpublished material, Dr. McIntosh shows how the order exerted a significant influence on the cultural, political and religious life of its age.