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Edited by Peter Soar

This book is a worldwide survey of legal aid containing more than seventy responses from ministries of justice, attorney generals, law societies, bar councils and individual lawyers to a detailed questionnaire. The results, set out here in summary form, are probably the most complete survey of its kind since the Lane and Hillyard edition of the Directory in 1985.
The Editor of The New International Directory of Legal Aid, former legal aid solicitor Peter Soar, says: `In preparing this new edition I have learnt from previous users that the Directory is a valuable aid for Legal Aid Boards and law schools as well as individual lawyers.'
In these pages you will find the ground work of legal aid systems in some of the most diverse legal jurisdictions from the Common Law countries of England and the Commonwealth to those which employ the approach of the Napoleonic Code. Here are systems adapted to the needs of the inhabitants of Caribbean islands, central European and Baltic states, emerging African peoples, the successors to ancient Indian empires, and countries of the Pacific Rim.
The different forms of legal aid are of interest to practitioners and academics but the claims of the book go further than that. Just and fair societies depend on the maintenance of the rule of law. If the legal system, and in the last resort, the courts themselves are not within the reach of all citizens then talk of their rights is empty. If poor, weak, or powerless members of society are denied access to the courts because of lack of means, or if that access depends on the willingness of some lawyers to undertake cases pro bono, it is difficult to argue that in that state human rights are any more than forms rather than reality. If lawyers themselves exchange their independence for involvement in the very process of litigation (so-called `no win, no fee'), can it be said that freedom is not compromised?
Here the reader can judge what in his or her opinion is the standing in these debates of each of the jurisdictions surveyed, with the help of editorial comments and the Editor's Introduction.

Scott Carlson and Gregory Gisvold

This Guide to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) condenses the guidance of the Human Rights Committee and accompanying legal scholarship into an easily accessible reference handbook for understanding the nature and scope of rights set forth in the ICCPR.



The ICCPR offers the most widely accepted definition of civil and political rights at the international level, and as such this practical guide serves as an indispensable tool for legal practitioners and others who are dedicated to the promotion and protection of civil and political rights throughout the globe. It is also a useful source of information for introductory courses in international human rights law.



Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

Edited by András Sajó

Traditional separation of powers theories assumed that governmental despotism will be prevented by dividing the branches of government which will check one another. Modern governments function with unexpected complicity among these branches. Sometimes one of the branches becomes overwhelming.
Other governmental structures, however, tend to mitigate these tendencies to domination. Among other structures courts have achieved considerable autonomy vis-à-vis the traditional political branches of power. They tend to maintain considerable distance from political parties in the name of professionalism and expertise. The conditions and criteria of independence are not clear, and even less clear are the conditions of institutional integrity.
Independence (including depolitization) of public institutions is of particular practical relevance in the post-Communist countries where political partisanship penetrated institutions under the single party system. Institutional integrity, particularly in the context of administration of justice, became a precondition for accession to the European Union. Given this practical challenge the present volume is centered around three key areas of institutional integrity, primarily within the administration of justice:
First, in a broader theoretical-interdisciplinary context the criteria of institutional independence are discussed.
The second major issue is the relation of neutralized institutions to branches of government with reference to accountability. Thirdly, comparative experience regarding judicial independence is discussed to determine techniques to enhance integrity.

Health Law, Human Rights and the Biomedicine Convention

Essays in Honour of Henriette Roscam Abbing

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Edited by Gevers, Ewoud Hondius and Joep Hubben

In 1997, the Council of Europe established the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. It is generally regarded as an important addition to the general human rights laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950), in particular with a view to the developments in modern biology and medicine. The Biomedicine Convention, which entered into force in 2000, is a framework treaty, meaning that a number of issues have to be dealt with or will be elaborated in additional Protocols; at this moment, three such Protocols have already been opened for signature.
This volume of essays, written in honour of Henriette Roscam Abbing upon her retirement as Professor of Health Law at the University of Utrecht, gives an overview of some of the most important issues raised by the Convention. In six parts, this volume discusses the basic concepts and leading principles; the provision of services; the rights of patients; research; human tissue and genetics; and the implementation of the Convention.

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Edited by European Centre for Minority Issues and The European Academy Bozen/Bolzano

The European Yearbook of Minority Issues provides a critical and timely review of contemporary developments in minority-majority relations in Europe. It combines analysis, commentary and documentation in relation to conflict management, international legal developments and domestic legislation affecting minorities in Europe.
Part I contains scholarly articles and, in the 2011 volume, features a special focus section on Roma.
Part II contains reports on national and international developments.

Apart from providing a unique annual overview of minority issues for both scholars and practitioners in this field, the Yearbook is an indispensable reference tool for libraries, research institutes as well as governments and international organisations.

The European Yearbook of Minority Issues is also available online.

Europe and the Americas

Transatlantic Approaches to Human Rights

Edited by Erik André Andersen and Eva Maria Lassen

In Europe and the Americas: Transatlantic Approaches to Human Rights, leading scholars of different disciplines offer new insight into transatlantic approaches to human rights. At a time when global challenges (economic crises, poverty, terrorism, mass migration and climate change) have a profound impact on the universal development of human rights and democracy, a common transatlantic understanding of human rights may prove instrumental in meeting these challenges.

Through conceptual discussions, by analysing different human rights topics in different periods and regions (Europe, the United States and Latin America), and by focusing on a diverse range of actors, from policy makers and judicial institutions to academics and civil society, the authors identify key developments of human rights within a transatlantic framework.