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  • All: "adaptation" x
  • Early Modern History x

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Edited by Westerweel

This volume deals with the interrelation between English and Dutch culture as it emerged in the field of the emblem and the emblem book in the 16th and 17th centuries. The traffic of emblems was mostly from the Low Countries to England. The very first printed English emblem book, by Geffrey Whitney, was printed in Leiden in 1586. One of the last English emblem books to be published in the 17th century, by Philip Ayres (1683) goes straight back to the Dutch love emblem tradition (Heinsius, Vaenius, et al.).
The reasons for this mainly one-way traffic are manifold. For one thing the best engravers and printers were to be found in the Low Countries. For another the Church of England also accommodated adaptations of the highly popular continental Jesuit emblem books of the early 17th century.
The book consists of fourteen original articles, by a wide range of specialists in the field, each of whom addresses a different aspect of the general subject.

The Horse as Cultural Icon

The Real and the Symbolic Horse in the Early Modern World

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Edited by Peter Edwards, Karl A. E.. Enenkel and Elspeth Graham

In modern Western society horses appear as unexpected visitors: not quite exotic, but not familiar either. This estrangement between humans and horses is a recent one since, until the 1930s, horses were fully present in the everyday world. Indeed, as well as performing utilitarian functions, horses possessed iconic appeal. But, despite the importance of horses, scholars have paid little attention to their lives, roles and meanings. This volume helps to redress the balance. It considers the value that the influential elite placed on horses as essential accompaniments to their way of life and as status symbols, as well as the role that horses played in society as a whole and the people who used and cared for them.

Contributors include Greg Bankoff, Pia F. Cuneo, Louise Hill Curth, Amanda Eisemann, Jennifer Flaherty, Ian F. MacInnes, Richard Nash, Gavin Robinson, Elizabeth Anne Socolow, Sandra Swart, Elizabeth M. Tobey, Andrea Tonni, and Elaine Walker.

Jews in Another Environment

Surinam in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

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Robert Cohen

The most important Jewish center in the western hemisphere during the eighteenth century was "the great colony" - Surinam. There, Jews formed perhaps the most privileged Jewish community in the world. They were often plantation and slave owners, as well as a sizeable proportion of the white population. They had their own village, with extensive autonomous rights.
This book is a study of the impact of environment on Jewish life in a colonial society. It analyzes the impact of environment upon migratory patterns, health and mortality, economic structures, intellectual life, and communal dynamics.
Following the methods of social history, this book uses an interdisciplinary approach to examine the impact of environment upon the modification of traditional values and modes of behavior.
This is the first full-length monograph on Surinamese Jewry to appear in two hundred years. The first one, the Historical Essay of David Nassy, treated Jewish history as part of the colonial experience. This book treats the colonial experience as part of Jewish history.

Children of the Laboring Poor

Expectation and Experience among the Orphans of Early Modern Augsburg

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Thomas Max Safley

A companion volume to Charity and Economy in the Orphanages of Early Modern Augsburg, this book takes up the agency and individuality of the laboring poor and their children. It examines the economic lives of poor, distressed, or truncated families on the basis of 5,734 biographical descriptions of children who passed through the City, Catholic, and Lutheran orphanages of Augsburg between 1572 and 1806. Studied in conjunction with administrative, criminal, and fiscal records of various sorts, these “Orphan Books” reveal the laboring poor as flexible and adaptive. Their fates were determined neither by the poverty they suffered nor the charity they received. Rather, they responded to changing economic and social conditions by using Augsburg’s orphanages to extend their resources, care for their children, and create opportunities. The findings will interest historians of poverty, charity, labor, and the Reformation.

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Edited by Andrea Hammel and Anthony Grenville

Exile and Everyday Life focusses on the everyday life experience of refugees fleeing National Socialism in the 1930s and 1940s as well as the representation of this experience in literature and culture. The contributions in this volume show experiences of loss, strategies of adaptation and the creation of a new identity and life. It covers topics such as Exile in Shanghai, Ireland, the US and the UK, food in exile, the writers Gina Kaus, Vicki Baum and Jean Améry, refugees in the medical profession and the creative arts, and the Kindertransport to the UK.

Brothers in Arms, Partners in Trade

Dutch-Indigenous Alliances in the Atlantic World, 1595-1674

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Mark Meuwese

Recent studies on Dutch encounters with indigenous peoples in the Americas and West Africa have taken a narrow regional approach rather than a comparative Atlantic perspective. This book, based on Dutch archival records and primary and secondary sources in multiple languages, integrates indigenous peoples more fully in the Dutch Atlantic by examining the development of formal relations between the Dutch and non-Europeans in Brazil, the Gold Coast, West Central Africa, and New Netherland from the first Dutch overseas voyages in the 1590s until the dissolution of the West India Company in 1674. By taking an Atlantic perspective this study of Dutch-indigenous alliances shows that the support and cooperation of indigenous peoples was central to Dutch overseas expansion in the Atlantic.

Marginal Voices

Studies in Converso Literature of Medieval and Golden Age Spain

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Amy I. Aronson-Friedman and Gregory B. Kaplan

The conversos of late medieval and Golden Age Spain were Christians whose Jewish ancestors had been forced to change faiths within a society that developed a preoccupation with pure Christian lineage. The aims of this book is to shed new light on the cultural impact of this social climate, in which public suspicion of the religious sincerity of conversos became widespread and scrutiny by the Inquisition came to impede social advancement and threaten life and property. The bulk of the essays center on literary works, including lesser known and canonical pieces, which are analyzed by scholars who reveal the heterogeneous nature of textual voices that are informed by an awareness of the marginal status of conversos.
Contributors are Gregory B. Kaplan, Ana Benito, Patricia Timmons, David Wacks, Bruce Rosenstock, Laura Delbrugge, Michelle Hamilton, Deborah Skolnik Rosenberg, Kevin Larsen and Luis Bejarano.

Whose Love of Which Country?

Composite States, National Histories and Patriotic Discourses in Early Modern East Central Europe

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Edited by Balazs Trencsenyi and Márton Zászkaliczky

Contributors to this volume seek to reconsider the heritage of discourses of patriotism and national allegiance in East Central Europe between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries. It results from an international research project, “The Intellectual History of Patriotism and the Legacy of Composite States in East Central Europe,” which brought together scholars to discuss the problem of patriotism in the light of the many levels of ethnic, cultural and political allegiances characterizing East Central Europe in early modern times. The authors analyze the complex process of the formation, reception and transmission of early modern discourses of collective identity in a regional context. Along these lines, the contributors also seek to reconfigure the geographical focus of scholarship on this topic and integrate the Eastern European contexts into the broader European discussion.

What Disease was Plague?

On the Controversy over the Microbiological Identity of Plague Epidemics of the Past

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Ole Benedictow

In recent decades, alternatives to the established bubonic-plague theory have been presented as to the microbiologcal identity and mechanism(s) of spread of historical plague epidemics. In this monograph, the six important alternative theories are intensively discussed in the light of the historical sources, the central primary studies and standard works on bubonic plague and the alternative microbiological agents, insofar as they are testable. These seven theories are incompatible and at least six of them must be untenable. In the author’s opinion, the arguments against the bubonic-plague theory and for all alternative theories are untenable. This monograph therefore also has been written also as a standard work on bubonic plague, giving a broad and in-depth presentation of the medical, epidemiological and historical evidence and the methodological tenets for identification of historical diseases by comparison with modern medical knowledge.

Civil Justice in Renaissance Scotland

The Origins of a Central Court

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Andrew Mark Godfrey

This book offers a fundamental reassessment of the origins of a central court in Scotland. It examines the early judicial role of Parliament, the development of “the Session” in the fifteenth century as a judicial sitting of the King’s Council, and its reconstitution as the College of Justice in 1532. Drawing on new archival research into jurisdictional change, litigation and dispute settlement, the book breaks with established interpretations and argues for the overriding significance of the foundation of the College of Justice as a supreme central court administering civil justice. This signalled a fundamental transformation in the medieval legal order of Scotland, reflecting a European pattern in which new courts of justice developed out of the jurisdiction of royal councils.