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Edited by Marcel van der Linden and Jürgen Rojahn

The twenty-seven articles presented in this volume mark the first stage of an international research project set up after the comprehensive reorganization of the International Institute of Social History in 1987. The aim of this extensive book project is to study the development of working-class movements using comparative research in an international framework in the time-period 1870-1914.
Included in this study are papers by experts on as many countries (both European and non-European) as possible with a modern labour movement: Britain, Belgium The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, The Czech Workers' Movement in the Habsburg Empire, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, The Jewish Workers' Movement in the Russian Empire, Poland, Finland, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and Japan.

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Ingrid Koulen and G. Oostindie

The former Dutch Caribbean islands of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba are going through a complex and, in many ways, difficult phase of their development. Three factors characterize the present situation of the six islands. First, there is an extreme dependence on the Netherlands, and to a lesser degree on Venezuela and the United States; this dependence has economic and political as well as cultural aspects. Next, smallness of scale characterizes the Antilles-of-five and Aruba, which attained a separate status in 1986. Finally, heterogeneity may be said to typify the islands. The major contrasts between the Leeward and the Windward Islands, the traditionally strong Curaçao-Aruba antagonism, and the considerable social, ethnic, and cultural variations within each of the islands are cases in point.
These two Caribbean mini-states, as yet partners in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, form a highly interesting subject for social science research. Moreover, since dependence, smallness, and heterogeneity tend to undermine the islands’ resilience and the welfare of their populations, social science research can be expected to help Antillean policy makers in finding solutions to the problems facing them.
This book, large parts of which were published in Dutch in 1984 by a joint Antillean-Dutch group of scholars, aims to survey and stimulate relevant social science research on the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. It consists of four chapters. The first two provide an introduction to the islands and to the actual state of research and research centres. The heart of the book is the third chapter, an extensive bibliographical essay. In the last chapter, some recommendations for future research are formulated. An extensive bibliography of some 550 entries and a list of relevant research centres complete the book.

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Edited by Giorgio Strano, Stephen Johnston, Mara Miniati and Alison D. Morrison-Low

Collections of scientific instruments originated as part of Renaissance collections of 'naturalia' and 'artificialia'. Surveying and astronomical instruments were common in such collections, their role being to impress visitors by displaying the power that a ruler acquired through the control of nature. This book offers selected studies of notable European collections of scientific instruments from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. These studies also present the work of important instrument makers of the time, and their relations with patrons and rulers. A final section focuses on the role of modern museums and collectors in saving this scientific heritage from dispersal. The result is a contemporary perspective on the formation of the most important museums of the history of science.

Contributors include: Paolo Brenni, Filippo Camerota, Gloria Clifton, Wolfram Dolz, Sven Dupré, Karsten Gaulke, Sven Hauschke, Michael Korey, Mara Miniati, Tatiana M. Moisseeva, Peter Plaßmeyer, Klaus Schillinger, Giorgio Strano, Koenraad Van Cleempoel, and Ewa Wyka.

Scientific Instruments and Collections, 1

Hugh Clapperton into the Interior of Africa

Records of the Second Expedition, 1825-1827

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Edited by Jamie Lockhart and Paul Lovejoy

This definitive edition of Clapperton’s second journey, is a compilation of the various diaries, remark books, letters, maps, and other documents that survived Clapperton’s death in 1827. Hitherto, it has been necessary to rely on the original published version (Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa), edited by John Barrow of the Admiralty and published by John Murray in 1829. The present volume differs from the 1829 edition by including material that was previously omitted and offering detailed annotation and commentary. The account reproduced in the new edition adheres as closely as possible to the original sources.
A comprehensive introduction provides information on Clapperton’s life, an account of previous European missions into the interior of West Africa, an assessment of Clapperton’s contribution to geographical “discovery,” details on Clapperton’s methods of journal-keeping, and a discussion of the publication history of the 1829 edition. The introduction offers a commentary on the principal themes on which Clapperton’s records shed original light – the coastal slave trade, abolitionist issues in the Sokoto Caliphate, the history of the states of Oyo, Nupe and Sokoto, and information on travel and trade in the interior of West Africa. The text itself is annotated, with observations on differences between the original sources and the published version of 1829.
The volume includes six appendices of official documents relating to the expedition, its preparation and progress. These include the correspondence of various members of the expedition, letters in Arabic with a commentary, annotated itineraries of travel, and a note on contemporary medicines. Also included is a collection of maps from Clapperton’s earlier mission in 1824-26 – the first known route-maps of the central Sudan, now in the collection of the Royal Geographical Society, London. The book is illustrated with previously unpublished sketches and maps from Clapperton’s remark books and a dozen sketches drawn by one of the co-editors when tracing Clapperton’s footsteps across Nigeria from Badagry to Sokoto in the early 1990s. There is an extensive bibliography.
This comprehensive edition of Clapperton’s last journey will appeal equally to scholars of pre-colonial Africa, specialists in Yoruba studies, and students of European travel and exploration.

Lenin Rediscovered

What Is to Be Done? in Context

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Lars T. Lih

Lenin’s What is to Be Done? (1902) has long been seen as the founding document of a 'party of a new type'. For some, it provided a model of ‘vanguard party’ that was the essence of Bolshevism, for others it manifested Lenin’s élitist and manipulatory attitude towards the workers.
This substantial new commentary, based on contemporary Russian- and German-language sources, provides hitherto unavailable contextual information that undermines these views and shows how Lenin's argument rests squarely on an optimistic confidence in the workers' revolutionary inclinations and on his admiration of German Social Democracy in particular. Lenin's outlook cannot be understood, Lih claims here, outside the context of international Social Democracy, the disputes within Russian Social Democracy and the institutions of the revolutionary underground.
The new translation focuses attention on hard-to-translate key terms. This study raises new and unsettling questions about the legacy of Marx, Bolshevism as a historical force, and the course of Soviet history, but, most of all, it will revolutionise the conventional interpretations of Lenin.

Utopia Ltd.

Ideologies of Social Dreaming in England 1870-1900

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Matthew Beaumont

This book uncovers the historical preconditions for the explosive revival of utopian literature at the nineteenth-century fin de siècle, and excavates its ideological content. It marks a contribution not only to the literary and cultural history of the late-Victorian period, and to the expanding field of utopian studies, but to the development of a Marxist critique of utopianism. The book is particularly concerned with three kinds of political utopia or anti-utopia, those of 'state socialism', feminism, and anti-communism (the characteristic expression of this last example being the cacotopia). After an extensive contextual account of the politics of utopia in late-nineteenth century England, it devotes a chapter to each of these topics before developing an original reinterpretation of William Morris's seminal Marxist utopia, News from Nowhere.

Netherlands Yearbook for History of Art / Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 63 (2013)

Art and Migration. Netherlandish Artists on the Move, 1400-1750

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Edited by Frits Scholten, Joanna Woodall and Dulcia Meijers

Since the Middle Ages artists from the Low Countries were known to be fond of travelling, as Guicciardini in his Descrittione di tutti i Paesi Bassi (Antwerp, 1567) and Karel van Mander in his 1604 Schilderboeck, already noticed. Much more mobile than their colleagues from other European countries, many Netherlandish artists spread all over Europe; a remarkable number among them achieved great fame as court artists, as the careers of Claus Sluter in Burgundy, Anthonis Mor in Spain, Bartholomeus Spranger or Adriaen de Vries in Prague, Giambologna and Jacob Bijlevelt in Florence demonstrate. Moreover, they exerted considerable influence on the artistic production of their time. Nevertheless most of them sank into oblivion soon after they died. Dutch art history neglected them for a long time as they did not fit into the traditional canon of the Low Countries, nor were they adopted by the art histories of their new homelands. This new NKJ volume is an attempt to change this.

Table of Contents
1. Frits Scholten & Joanna Woodall, Introduction
2. Filip Vermeylen, Greener pastures? Capturing artists’ migrations during the Dutch Revolt
3. Hope Walker, Netherlandish immigrant painters and the Dutch reformed church of London, Austin Friars, 1560-1580
4. Arjan de Koomen, ‘Una cosa non meno maravigliosa che honorata’. The expansion of Netherlandish sculptors in sixteenth-century Europe
5. Franciszek Skibiński, Early-modern Netherlandish sculptors in Danzig and East-Central Europe. A study in dissemination through interrelation and workshop practice
6. Aleksandra Lipińska, Eastern outpost. The sculptors Herman Van Hutte and Hendrik Horst in Lviv c. 1560-1610
7. Gert Jan van der Sman and Bouk Wierda, Wisselend succes. De loopbanen van Nederlandse en Vlaamse kunstenaars in Florence, 1450-1600
8. Marije Osnabrugge , From itinerant to immigrant artist. Aert Mytens in Naples
9. Abigail D. Newman, Juan de la Corte in Madrid: ‘branding’ Flanders abroad
10. Judith Noorman, A fugitive’s success story. Jacob van Loo in Paris (1661-1670)
11. Isabella di Lenardo, Carlo Helman, merchant, patron and collector, and the role of family ties in the Antwerp–Venice migrant network
12. Saskia Cohen-Willner, Between painter and painter stands a tall mountain. Van Mander’s Italian Lives as a source for instructing artists in the ‘deelen der consten’

Defending Neutrality

The Netherlands prepares for War, 1900-1925

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Wim Klinkert

The small neutral states of Europe have until now only marginally been included in the historiography of the First World War. This volume deals in depth with The Netherlands, and specifically its war preparations. Being a small country close to the battlefield of the Western Front, it could not be sure its neutrality would be repected by the warring states. How did the country prepare itself militarily and how did these preparations differ from the way the warring states adjusted to the reality of modern, total war? Was modern, technological warfare even possible for small states and if not, in what way could it ensure its survival when the worst came to worst? This volume analyses technological innovation, intelligence and ideas on the societal and political impact of modern warfare in The Netherlands before, during and after the Great War.

Hungary's Long Nineteenth Century

Constitutional and Democratic Traditions in a European Perspective

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Laszlo Péter

Edited by Miklós Lojkó

László Péter, whose fourteen carefully selected essays are edited in this posthumous collection, was an indefatigable seeker of the most appropriate terminological modelling and narrative reconstruction of Hungary’s late nineteenth and early twentieth century progress from an essentially feudal entity into a modern European state. The articles examine thorny subjects, such as the growing tensions between the nationalities living within the multi-ethnic kingdom; language rights; autocracy, democracy and civil rights in Hungary perceived in a wider European context; the concept of the ‘Holy Crown’; the army question; church-state relations; the role of the intellectuals; and the changing British perception of Hungary. The central focus of the author’s microscope is reserved for a substantive re-evaluation of the Settlement between Hungary and the Austrian Empire in 1867, which had a decisive impact on the eventual fate of the old kingdom of Hungary and of the rest of Central Europe.

Working on Labor

Essays in Honor of Jan Lucassen

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Edited by Marcel van der Linden and Leo Lucassen

This collection of seventeen essays takes its inspiration from the scholarly achievements of the Dutch historian Jan Lucassen. They reflect a central theme in his research: the history of labor. The essays deal with five major themes: the production of specific commodities or services (diamonds, indigo, cigarettes, mail delivery by road runners); occupational groups (informal street vendors, prostitutes, soldiers, white-collar workers in the Dutch East India Company, VOC); geographical and social mobility (career opportunities on non-Dutch officers in the VOC, immigration into early-modern Holland; the influence of migrants on labor productivity; income differentials as migration incentives); contexts of labor relations (late medieval labor laws, subsistence labor and female paid labor, Russian peasant-migrant laborers, diverging political trajectories of cane-sugar industries); and the origins of labor-history libraries and archives.