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Constitutionalism: New Challenges

European Law from a Nordic Perspective

Series:

Joakim Nergelius

This book has its roots in a conference on recent developments in Nordic and German constitutional law that took place in Berlin in 2002 at the Nordic Cultural Centre.That conference was organised within the project Konstitutionalism, demokrati och den
nordiska välfärdsstaten
(Constitutionalism, Democracy and the Nordic Welfare State), financed by the Joint Committee for Nordic Research Councils for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (NOS-HS). The volume contains the edited and updated papers which emerged from this meeting of minds. They offer insight into some of the new, exciting strands of constitutional thought that are currently present in the Nordic doctrine, where many new paths have been opened in recent years. The contrast with the situation two decades ago is indeed striking.
As far as German and European law are concerned, some of the most important theoretical issues in the doctrine are analysed in a number of particularly rewarding and inspiring contributions.

Series:

Ragnhildur Helgadóttir

Courts of some Nordic countries started reviewing the constitutionality of legislation long before judicial review was established elsewhere in Europe. This study examines the influence of American law and theories of judicial review on the development, practice and theorization of judicial review in Norway, Denmark, and Iceland from the 19th century to the present.
The study describes how Nordic scholars in the late 19th century rationalized judicial review based on American theory and how American law influenced both their views of the institution and their way of thinking about substantive constitutional rights. These views in turn influenced Nordic jurisprudence for decades.
The author then shows how the changes that took place in American constitutional jurisprudence in the 1930s and 1940s influenced Nordic constitutional theory and constitutional jurisprudence. These changes received significant attention in Nordic legal circles and the study examines how these changes, as well as the American and Nordic theory that built on them, influenced Nordic jurisprudence.
Finally, it is argued that American influence in this area of law changed after 1965. Direct references to and discussions of American law almost disappeared from Nordic jurisprudence. American constitutional law was, however, an important influence on the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, which importance increased in this period. The European Convention of Human Rights and the Court’s decisions have in turn immensely influenced Nordic constitutional law.

Russia and its Constitution

Promise and Political Reality

Series:

Edited by Robert Sharlet and Gordon Smith

The Constitution of the Russian Federation was ratified in 1993 amid great hopes and aspirations following the collapse of the USSR. The constitution proclaims the goal of establishing a “democratic, federal state” that functions according to rule of law and promises a broad array of social, political and economic rights to its citizens. But how well has the Russian government lived up to realizing these promises? Seven distinguished scholars on Russian politics and law examine the state of political accountability, federal power-sharing, judicial independence, press freedom, and criminal procedure in Russia today. The picture that emerges is decidedly mixed; they conclude that the Russian constitution remains a work in progress.

Edited by Beth Stephens, Michael Ratner, Judith Chomsky, Jennifer Green and Paul Hoffman

Written by leading human rights litigators and theorists, this treatise offers a comprehensive analysis of human rights litigation in U.S. courts under the Alien Tort Statute and related provisions, including jurisprudential complexities and litigation guidance. The book includes discussion of the Alien Tort Statute, the Torture Victim Protection Act, and less common jurisdictional bases. The issues raised by suing corporations are also discussed. Separate chapters address lawsuits against the U.S. and foreign governments. A section on defenses includes analysis of topics such as immunities, forum non conveniens, and the intervention of the executive branch. The final section discusses litigation strategies.

The Culture of Judicial Independence

Rule of Law and World Peace

Edited by Shimon Shetreet

The Culture of Judicial Independence: Rule of Law and World Peace, is the third book by Shimon Shetreet on Judicial Independence. The first was Judicial Independence: The Contemporary Debate (edited by Shimon Shetreet and Jules Deschênes, Nijhoff,1985). The second was The Culture of Judicial Independence: Conceptual Foundations and Practical Challenges (Edited by Shimon Shetreet and Christopher Forsyth, Nijhoff, 2012).
This volume contains essays by senior academics, judges and practitioners across jurisdictions offering an analysis of several central issues relative to the culture of Judicial Independence. These include judicial review, human rights, democracy, the rule of law and world peace, constitutional position of top courts, relations between the judiciary and the other branches of government, impartiality and fairness of the judicial process, judicial ethics, dispute resolution in arbitral awards and international investments, international courts and cross country issues, judicial selection. The volume also offers an update report on the International Project of Judicial Independence of the International Association of Judicial Independence and World Peace, including the relations of top courts and international courts, administrative judges, culture of judicial independence and public inquiries by judges.