Search Results

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

The Role of Judicial Procedures in the Process of the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes by Mariko Kawano.

The Charter of the United Nations provides for two features of the International Court of Justice; the principal judicial organ of the UN and the institution to be chosen by the parties to an international dispute which enjoy the freedom of choice of the peaceful means to settle their dispute. Thus, while the Court has an independent and authoritative status as a judicial organ in the international community, its jurisdiction is based on the consents expressed by the sovereign States parties to a respective dispute. It should also be noted that the Court is expected to contribute to the process
of the peaceful settlement of international disputes as one of the principal organs of the UN. The present lecture discusses the roles to be played by the Court in the present international community through close and extensive examination of its jurisprudence.

Series:

Edited by Martti Koskenniemi and Pierre Michel Eisemann

The Hague Academy Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations devoted its Session of 1996 to the Succession of States, including for the second time this topic in its programme, but in a context very different from that in which the 1962 Session had been held.
Following the great wave of decolonizations, the studies conducted in the Centre in 1962 had constituted a kind of prologue to the lengthy deliberations by the International Law Commission that led to the 1978 Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties and the 1983 Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts. The less than enthusiastic reception that these Conventions had received from the international community seemed to condemn them into oblivion.
The extraordinary political developments in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, however, suddenly focused interest in these questions anew. As the theme of the Session indicates, it became possible to examine the question of `codification tested against these facts'.
Twenty-four participants from a French and an English section conducted this task with passion and talent. The present volume reproduces some of the best reports in an updated and technically harmonized form.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 20.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

Mohammed Bedjaoui, Ancien président de la Cour internationale de justice

L'Humanité en Quête de Paix et de Développement (II)

Cours général de droit international public (2004)

Cet article de Mohammed Bedjaoui, ancien président de la Cour internationale de justice constitue la deuxième partie de son cours consacré à l'humanité en quête de paix et de développement (publié aux tomes 324 et 325 des recueils des cours de l'Académie de droit international de La Haye).
Le présent tome comprend la fin de la première partie (La paix, une conquête... qui reste une quête), consacrée à la fonction pacifiante de la Cour internationale de justice et au thème de l'attentat contre la paix. Dans la deuxième partie du cours, intitulée « Le développement, souci premier, servi dernier », Mohammed Bedjaoui s'intéresse au développement durable, à ce qu'il nomme les deux versants de la mondialisation (le versant pacificateur et le versant belligène), aux ressources naturelles, et au sort de « Gaïa ». Dans la troisième partie intitulée « Que faire... ? », le Président Bedjaoui aborde les questions des menaces portées par le nouvel ordre politique sur l'intégrité de l'ordre juridique international, propose une refondation du droit international, et présente en conclusion une communauté internationale « en marche ». Un épilogue consacré à la fragilité du monde est laissé à la plume de Roger Cohen.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

Succession Substitutes by Jeffrey Talpis.
In this course, Professor Talpis explores a subject not yet examined closely in private international law : the treatment of legally authorized methods for transferring property at death otherwise than by succession. These mechanisms, known generally in the common law as “will substitutes” but referred to in the present study as “succession substitutes,” are becoming more popular in both civil and common law jurisdictions. As such, effective solutions for resolving conflicts of laws in this area must be found. Given the paucity of guidance available in jurisprudence, doctrine and international instruments, Professor Talpis presents solutions for consideration.

L’efficacité des normes internationales concernant la situation des personnes privées dans les ordres juridiques internes par Evelyne Lagrange.
Le sort des normes internationales qui, en nombre croissant, intéressent la situation des personnes privées se joue d’abord dans les ordres juridiques internes des Etats. Tout en s’efforçant de restituer la variété des pratiques et l’enjeu des débats sur la légitimité de ces normes ou de leurs techniques d’application, ce cours met en lumière, d’une part, une tendance au recul des obstacles à leur efficacité, d’autre part, les potentialités que recèle un Etat constitutionnel ouvert pour une application de ces normes qui ménage les exigences de l’Etat de droit et du gouvernement démocratique.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

International Economic Law: General Course of Public International Law, I. Seidl-Hohenveldern

I. Seidl-Hohenveldern, Professor at the Institute of International Law and International Relations in Vienna, devotes his general course of public international law to questions of international economic law, while touching upon all aspects of international economic law. In seventeen chapters, the author examines the question of the subjects of international economic law, sovereignty in international economic law, and the sources of international economic law. He pays attention to the State in international economic law (notably in relation to territory, nationality and governmental power), before looking successively at bilateral inter-State economic relations, the role of international organizations in international law, joint inter-State enterprises, the place of the individual in international economic law, the basic economic rights of States, human rights of economic value, the problems of State responsibility in international economic law, dispute settlement in international economic law, and economic warfare.


International Co-operation in Cultural Affairs, Liudmila Galenskaya

In this study on international co-operation in cultural affairs, Liudmila Galenskaya, Professor at the University of Leningrad, examines the definition of culture as given by the British Council: culture comprises arts, education, science and any social and intellectual interexchange. The author starts with presenting the legal regulation of international co-operation in the filed of culture (general and special principles, treaties, international organizations). Professor Galenskaya next examines the protection of cultural treasures in time of peace (international legal regulation of the protection of universal cultural heritage, legal protection of archaeological excavations, legal regulation concerning the struggle against the plundering of cultural treasures, and legislation by States on protection of cultural property), and finally discusses the legal problems of the protection of cultural treasures in time of war.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

L’article 103 de la Charte des Nations Unies, par R. Kolb, professeur à l’Université de genève
L’article 103 de la Charte des Nations Unies touche à la priorité, pour les membres de l’Organisation, des obligations en vertu de la Charte des
Nations Unies par rapport aux obligations découlant de tout autre accord. Cette disposition a constamment gagné en importance dans la pratique
internationale et nationale de ces dernières années. On pense évidemment à la concurrence entre les régimes de sanction des Nations Unies
par rapport aux obligations contenues dans des traités de droits de l’homme. A vrai dire, cette disposition pose toutefois déjà en elle-même
toute une série de questions et de problèmes d’interprétation. Que signifie avoir la primauté ? Quelles sont les obligations visées ? Qu’en est-il
d’obligations contenues dans des textes juridiquement liés à la Charte? Qu’en est-il d’obligations issues du droit international coutumier? Et
ainsi de suite. Le présent ouvrage cherche en tout premier lieu à donner des éléments d’exégèse de cette disposition importante et difficile du
point de vue juridique, dans les multiples directions dans lesquelles son champ d’application est susceptible de rayonner.

Le droit de la nationalité et le droit des organisations d’intégration régionales. Vers de nouveaux statuts de résidents? par B. Nascimbene, professeur à l’Université de Milan
Le paradigme des droits de l’homme et les processus d’intégration régionale peuvent être identifiés comme des facteurs cruciaux dans l’évolution de la notion de nationalité. Dans l’Union européenne, la création d’une citoyenneté de l’Union qui complète celle nationale de l’Etat membre sans la remplacer a représenté une étape d’importance capitale du processus d’intégration, dont les contours ont progressivement été définis par la Cour de justice. Cet institut, qualifié de statut fondamental des ressortissants des États membres, permet aux citoyens européens de recevoir le même traitement juridique indépendamment de leur nationalité. La comparaison avec d’autres processus d’intégration régionale, notamment en Amérique du Sud et en Afrique, suscite une réflexion sur l’évolution du statut de l’étranger et l’émergence de nouveaux statuts de résidents.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

La méthode de la reconnaissance est-elle l’avenir du droit international privé ?, par P. Lagarde;

Democracy and International Law, by H. Charlesworth;
These lectures consider the way that international law defines and shapes ideas of democracy. This process is most obvious today in the context of post-conflict societies, but it also has a broader significance, affecting the whole fabric of international law. While there is an extensive literature on democracy in philosophy, political theory and international relations, there has been much less attention paid to the concept by international lawyers. The term is typically invoked as a self-evident good, and there has been little sustained analysis of the many meanings of democracy deployed in international law. The lectures argue that international lawyers have generally taken democracy to have a fixed form, associated with specific institutional practices and structures, and have been slow to recognize democratic forms outside these parameters. In other words, the discipline of international law has lost sight of why we might want democracy, assuming that it can be realized by a set of institutions.

L’exception d’ordre public et la régularité substantielle internationale de la loi étrangère par Pascal de Vareilles-Sommières
Si l’exception d’ordre public fait incontestablement partie des mécanismes les plus classiques du droit des conflits de lois, l’incertitude qu’on observe aujourd’hui encore sur sa place aussi bien que sur les conditions de son fonctionnement dans le raisonnement conflictualiste est le signe que sa véritable nature n’a pas été, pour lors, correctement élucidée. Le présent cours s’attache à démontrer qu’avec l’exception d’ordre public, le droit des conflits de lois accueille en son sein un mécanisme qui ressortit au droit et à la théorie de la régularité substantielle internationale des normes, et qui concerne plus particulièrement cette norme précise qu’est la loi étrangère, lorsque son application dans un Etat est envisagée dans un cas donné du fait de sa désignation par la règle de conflit. Il résulte de cette analyse une clarification du fonctionnement de l’exception d’ordre public, à la fois au plan des standards de l’ordre public à l’œuvre dans ce mécanisme (distinction par rapport à l’ordre public interne et aux lois de police) et au plan du contrôle de la conformité de la loi étrangère par rapport à ces standards (révélation d’une exception d’inopposabilité de la loi étrangère, allocation de l’effet positif habituellement imputé à l’exception, au mécanisme plus général de la vocation subsidiaire de la loi du for).

Significance of the History of the Law of Nations in Europe and East Asia by Masaharu Yanagihara
It was a commonly held view in the nineteenth century that international law was a concept developed only in Europe. This view has been widely criticized and now the idea is generally accepted that there are various types of “international law” in various periods and regions, even if “rudimentary” as seen from a contemporary viewpoint. After analysing the “reception” process of modern European international law in East Asia (China, Korea and Japan), this article focuses on the “reception” in Japan of two specific institutions, namely territory and international adjudication, both of which are particularly important concepts in modern European international law. The purpose of this article is not to put forward immediate and practical solutions to current issues, but to show the importance of historical investigations, which will contribute to tackling these important issues from various points of view in order to achieve a real breakthrough in our understanding.

Series:

Académie de Droit International de la Ha

La Zone économique exclusive : régime et nature juridique dans le Droit international, Francisco Orrego Vicuña

Francisco Orrego Vicuña, Professor of the Institute of International Studies of the University of Chile, notes that the discussion on the legal status of the exclusive economic zone in international law has continued without interruption since the negotiations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea started, and that it has not lessened with the signature of the Convention in 1982. The author points out that the various interpretations of the legal regime that applies to this zone reply tie in with the different theories related to its nature as a new concept of international law. Francisco Orrego Vicuña aims with his study to contribute to the clarification of the legal nature of the exclusive economic zone in the light of the provisions of the 1982 convention and their implementations, in particular with regard to the problems of interpretation and to other legal problems raised by this new maritime zone's regime.


Rapports entre Facteurs matériels et Facteurs formels dans la Formation du Droit international, Milan Šahović

In the introduction to his course, Milan Šahovic, Director of the Institute of International Politics and Economics, points out that the development of international law has brought about a special situation. Its progress calls for an in-depth consideration of the value and the importance of new acquisitions, and of the trends that have manifested and confirmed themselves during the second half of the 20th century. After a description of the current state of affairs in international law, the author examines the theory of the factors of international law. Next, he studies the influence of the material factors and formal factors in the development of contemporary international law. Finally, Milan Šahović considers the prospects for the development of international law in the light of the material factors and contemporary formal factors.


Harmonization of Private International Law Relating to Contractual Obligations, Aubrey L. Diamond

Aubrey L. Diamond, Director of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies of the University of London, devotes his course to the harmonization of private international law relating to contractual obligations. After an introduction mainly devoted to the harmonisation of the law - and particularly of private international law - the author addresses the question of freedom to choose the applicable law that governs the contract. He then examines the situations that are characterized by an absence of choice. Aubrey L. Diamond next studies the relation between choice of law and the effect of mandatory rules. Finally, the author analyzes certain special rules (in particular legislation regarding protection of consumers or contracts of employment).

Rules, Problems and Trends in Family Conflict of Laws – especially in Sweden, Lennart Pålsson

In this course, Lennart Pålsson, Professor at the University of Lund, addresses various questions of jurisdiction, choice of law and the recognition of foreign decisions in the field of family law, in particular in Swedish law. Stressing the fact that he has to be selective, Lennart Pålsson first of all presents some general features of Swedish conflict of law in matters of family law. He then examines questions of paternity, maintenance obligations and the question of the matrimonial property régimes.

Working Methods and Procedures in the Third United nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, Jens Evensen

After some introductory remarks devoted to an enumeration of the main features and main methods during the Conference on the Law of the Sea, Jens Evensen, Judge at the International Court of Justice, recalls the events that led to the 1982 Convention. The author next makes a few general remarks concerning the contents of this convention, and goes on to describe the preparatory work and the procedure that lead up to the text of this convention. Judge Evensen continues by presenting three essential elements of the working method of the United Nations Conference: The consensus principle, the "package deal", and the gentleman's agreement with voting as a final resort.