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Janneke Kalsbeek

Cakavian dialects, the westernmost dialects of the South Slavic language area, have long attracted the attention of investigators, largely owing to the complexity of their prosodic systems. These prosodic systems are interesting not only from a typological point of view, but also contain material of great importance for the study of Slavic historical accentology. The description of a Cakavian dialect in Istria (Croatia) presented in this volume contributes data for South Slavic historical dialectology, and for historical accentology. The book includes an introduction on Cakavian and other South Slavic dialects, particularly those spoken in Istria, and chapters, based on fieldwork by the author, on the phonology, morphology and some syntactic phenomena of the dialect of Orbanici. In the chapters on morphology, special attention is paid to accentuation types. The book also contains dialect texts (70 pp.) and a lexicon, in which all attested forms are listed.


Edited by Pierre Goffic

Le « présent » , terme équivoque : temps vécu (étroit comme l'instant ou large comme l'actualité) et/ou paradigme linguistique (en français)... Pointer l'ambiguïté ne suffit pas à l'exorciser ! Et en quoi ou comment le second renvoie-t-il à la réalité du premier ? J.M. Fournier retrace les efforts des grammairiens du XVIIIème siècle: de la conception d'un présent linguistique lié à l'instant d'énonciation (chez Arnauld et Lancelot), à celle d'un présent marquant l'actualité étendue (chez Girard ou Harris), et à celle d'un présent indéfini et neutre, renvoyant par défaut à l'actualité, chez Beauzée. S. Mellet revendique l'héritage de Beauzée, en proposant une vision aspectuelle du présent construisant sa propre actualité par auto-repérage.
De même A. Jaubert, qui propose un présent éternellement perçu comme advenant et transportant avec lui son repère. Aux exemples littéraires de l'une et de l'autre répondent les extraits du Monde Diplomatique dans lesquels H. Chuquet relève la valeur à la fois aoristique et commentative des présents. P. Le Goffic et F. Lab tournent le présent vers l'avenir: le présent « pro futuro » de « Demain, je suis à Bruxelles » n'est temporel qu'à travers sa valeur modale de constat anticipé d'une réalité programmée. Enfin O. Soutet cherche, à la lumière des concepts guillaumiens, la place d'un présent subjonctif dans le système français. Impossible de lier ou de délier absolument présent linguistique et présent vécu ... Ce recueil se veut un jalon sur la route, encore longue sans doute, d'une élucidation de leurs rapports.

The Germanic 'Auslautgesetze'

A new Interpretation


Dirk Boutkan

The overall interpretation of Old Germanic phonology and morphology has much to gain from the recent and revolutionary views that were developed in its 'mother' discipline, Indo-European linguistics. For the first time, the Germanic Auslaut problem, i.e. the interpretation of the historical development of final syllables between Proto-Indo-European and Germanic, is analyzed against the background of the modern reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European. This especially entails new interpretations of various detail problems in the field of nominal and verbal morphology. Moreover, the traditional assumption of contrasting intonations yielding different inflexional endings (e.g. circumflex *-õm > Goth ??o??, OHG -o in the _-stem genitive plural, but acute *-_m > Goth -a, OHG -a in the _-stem accusative singular) must be replaced by a theory that is in accordance with our present-day knowledge of Proto-Indo-European as a language that most probably did not display such contrasts.
It is above all the interpretation of long vowels and diphthongs in Old Germanic final syllables that has given rise to a long discussion. After the standard theory, which entered most handbooks of Old Germanic linguistics, was established, it was proven to be unlikely by new investigations. Especially Lane, in his epoch-making article (JEGP 62, 1963: 155 ff), renewed the discussion and drew interesting conclusions. Studies by Antonsen, Beck, Kortlandt, Voyles and others (sometimes dealing with other subjects than Germanic Auslaut proper) also provide materials for a new theory. With respect to this 'long vowel problem', older theories (including the standard view) and modern ideas are discussed before a new interpretation is proposed.
The evidence is discussed in the form of a historical overview of the nominal and verbal morphology of the Old Germanic dialects. This part of the book can therefore also be used as a reference guide in the field of historical morphology. This approach is adopted from a recent key-study in the field of Auslaut, viz. Jones' dissertation (1979, Chapell Hill).
The growing interest in the relative chronology of Lautgesetze, - which was, for example, the theme of the Leiden Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft of 1986 -, is met with where a chronological order of the Auslautgesetze of the separate dialects is proposed. This part of the book may serve as a stimulus for the necessary discussion of the subject.

Language: Usage and Description

Studies presented to N.E. Osselton on the occasion of his retirement

Edited by Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade, John Frankis and Colin Ewen

Signs of Friendship: To Honour A.G.F. van Holk, Slavist, Linguist, Semiotician

‘Liber amicorum’ presented to André G.F. van Holk on the occasion of his 60th birthday, and in celebration of 20 years of Slavic studies under his direction at Groningen University

Edited by Joost van Baak

Language in Scotland

Corpus-based Studies


Edited by Wendy J. Anderson

The chapters in this volume take as their focus aspects of three of the languages of Scotland: Scots, Scottish English, and Scottish Gaelic. They present linguistic research which has been made possible by new and developing corpora of these languages: this encompasses work on lexis and lexicogrammar, semantics, pragmatics, orthography, and punctuation. Throughout the volume, the findings of analysis are accompanied by discussion of the methodologies adopted, including issues of corpus design and representativeness, search possibilities, and the complementarity and interoperability of linguistic resources. Together, the chapters present the forefront of the research which is currently being directed towards the linguistics of the languages of Scotland, and point to an exciting future for research driven by ever more refined corpora and related language resources.

Adjective Intensification – Learner's versus Native Speakers

A Corpus Study of Argumentative Writing


Gunter R. Lorenz

This volume represents one of the first full-length studies carried out on material from the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), supplemented by data from younger learners and native speakers. It addresses three main goals:
a) the implementation of a developmental corpus methodology. The study explores four corpora of argumentative writing, two sampled from advanced learners of different ages and two from corresponding native speakers of English. This way, the respective linguistic maturation in native and non-native writing can be traced with more explanatory power than could be yielded by a mere learner / native speaker contrast.
b) a functional account of adjective intensification in present-day written English. Intensification is a singularly dynamic and innovative lexico-grammatical class. Despite their obvious limitations, small, text-type controlled corpora, such as the ones used here, make it feasible to examine this whole functional paradigm and identify the conceptual mechanisms of its continual innovation and semantic change.
c) the exploration of native vs. non-native usage and the notion of idiomaticity. The main differences between native English usage and that of advanced learners rest not so much on grammatical structure, but on the rather elusive quality of 'idiomaticity'. In the limited domain of intensification, this notion is explored both qualitatively and arithmetically, with the aim of learning more about what it takes to use English idiomatically.


Edited by Dicky Gilbers, John Nerbonne and Jos Schaeken

The present volume includes papers that were presented at the conference Languages in Contact at the University of Groningen (25-26 November 1999). The conference was held to celebrate the University of St. Petersburg’s award of an honorary doctorate to Tjeerd de Graaf of Groningen. In general, the issues discussed in the articles involve pidgins and creoles, minorities and their languages, Diaspora situations, Sprachbund phenomena, extralinguistic correlates of variety in contact situations, problems of endangered languages and the typology of these languages. Special attention is paid to contact phenomena between languages of the Russian Empire / USSR / Russian Federation, their survival and the influence of Russian.


Louise M. Sylvester

Studies in the Lexical Field of Expectation presents a classification by conceptual field of the vocabulary expressing the ideas in the semantic field of Expectation. The field divides into eleven categories including Surprise, Disappointment, Hope, Fear, Caution, Courage, and Rashness. The categories, subcategories of the field and the lexical items are ordered hierarchically and each sense is followed by its dates of usage. The book discusses the method and methodology of constructing the classification examining the delimitation of the field, the choice of headwords, the process of classifying the materials, and the use and presentation of grammatical information within a semantic classification. The proportions of loan words and native terms within each conceptual group are investigated and it examines the patterns of accessions and obsolescences across the centuries from Old English to the present day.


Adriana Pols

This study examines the correlation between form and meaning of Russian prefixed imperfective verbs ending in -át'/-ját' and -yvat'/-ivat' which are derived from one and the same root (-gotóvit', podgotovlját'/podgotávlivat'). The following questions are discussed: Which factors determine the use of either the form -át' or the form in -yvat'? What is the role of the opposition determinate/indeterminate in verbs which do not express linear motion? What is the relation between prefix and suffix? (-xvalit', vosxvalját', vyxvalját'/vyxválivat', naxválivat').Is there a tendency for forms in -át' to be replaced by forms in -yvat' (prisposoblját' by prisposáblivat') or vice versa (obsú^zivat' by obsu^zdát')?
Besides present-day Russian, literary, journalistic and scientific publications from the 19th century have been examined in order to establish the dynamics of the linguistic development.