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Volume I of this monograph describes the morphology, geographic distribution, and biology of cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of four subfamilies (Prioninae, Disteniinae, Lepturinae, and Aseminae), comprising 124 species. Keys to taxa based on different developmental stages are presented here for the first time, host relationships explained, and the life cycle and ecology of each species assessed. This information forms the theoretical basis for resolving various practical problems.

Social Insects and the Environment

Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of IUSSI, 1990 (International Union for the Study of Social Insects).

Edited by Viraktamath, Veeresh and Malik

This volume includes 370 papers presented by leading scientists at the 11th International Congress of IUSSI at Bangalore, from August 5-11, 1990. The papers which have been classified into 30 sections relate to the symposia papers of the Congress. These cover various frontiers of research on social insects such as evolution of sociality, polygyny, social polymorphism, kin-recognition, kin- selection, foraging strategies, reproductive strategies, biogeography and phylogenetics of bees and ants pollination ecology and management of pestiferous social insects.
The most important feature about these papers in this publication is that the results are presented in a crisp, brief and precise manner. Because of the brevity it has been possible to bring together, in one publication, almost all aspects of research on social insects from all parts of the world.
The time between presentation of papers at a Congress and publication has been avoided by publishing this volume on the eve of the Congress and this enables scientists to refer to the results immediately.

Antarctic Valviferans (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera)

New Genera, New Species and Redescriptions


During the "Polarstern" expeditions of 1983-1987 to Antarctica, a large number of benthic isopods were collected. Many of these species are already known, though not always well described, but the samples also contain many new species, especially of the family Arcturidae. The descriptions found in the literature are often poor or incomplete. It is difficult to determine many of the previously described species or to identify new species. For this reason, many species are redescribed besides the description of new species. Antarcturus Zur Strassen, 1902 does not form a monophyletic unit. Though a complete revision of the genera of the Arcturidae cannot be presented, it is possible to define some new, probably, monophyletic genera.
Besides the contribution of descriptions of new species, redescriptions and the establishments of new genera this book will be a good stimulus for taxonomists and phylogeneticists to work out more monophyletic groups within the polyphyletic genus Antarcturus.

David T. Goodger and Allan Watson

The 411 currently recognized and described species of tiger-moths of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued in this book. Fourteen new synonymies are established together with 44 new combinations and 8 reversions to original combinations of genus group and species group names. Six generic and 7 species group names are removed from synonymy and re-established as valid names. One name has been changed in status from species to subspecies, and another the reverse. The diagnostic features of each genus are presented and a brief summary is given of species that are probably wrongly placed generically. The male genitalia of type species of most genera are illustrated by half-tone photographs and the whole moth by colour photographs. Twenty genera have been removed from the Arctiidae and placed in the families Noctuidae, Lymantriidae or Geometridae. One species has been transferred to the Notodontidae.

Evolution, Function, Development and Causation

Tinbergen's Four Questions and Contemporary Behavioural Biology

Edited by Johan Bolhuis and Simon Verhulst

Ethologist and Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen laid the foundations for the scientific study of animal behaviour when he formulated its four main problems: evolution, function, development and causation. Celebrating the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Tinbergen’s classic article ‘On aims and methods of ethology’, in this book an international cast of leading behavioural biologists reflect on the enduring significance of his groundbreaking proposals. Following a reprint of Tinbergen’s seminal paper on the famous ‘four why’s’, a contemporary perspective is presented on each of the four problems. In addition, two essays discuss the wider significance of recent trends in evolutionary psychology and neuroecology to integrate the four why’s. This wide ranging book, with a foreword by Aubrey Manning, will appeal to students and researchers in behavioural biology, experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience.



The present volume presents a detailed account of the taxonomy, biology and distribution of the European species of Siphonini. This group of tachinid Diptera totals 58 species in Europe of which 6 are here described as new to science. In most species, the immatures live as endoparasitolds of lepidopterous larvae, but a few species even attack tipulid larvae. Several species of Siphonini are of great economic interest as agents for the control of lepidopterous and tipulid pests in agriculture and forestry.
An analysis and proposal on the systematic position of the Siphonini is given together with a key to larger taxonomic entities of Tachinidae. The generic classification is also critically emphasized. A separate chapter summarizes aspects of the group's natural history: life-cycles, mating behaviour, oviposition strategies, etc. The taxonomic part contains identification keys to genera and species, and for each species a diagnosis, a description and accounts on the nomenclature, biology and distribution is given. A separate catalogue details the provincial distribution of the 47 species occurring in Fennoscandia and Danmark. No less than 275 line drawings and 15 colour illustrations accompany the text.



The majority of blackflies (family Simuliidae) are blood- suckers of man and domestic animals. Throughout the vast territory of the Soviet Union, in the steppes, forest steppes, and especially the taiga and tundra, blackflies occupy a prominent place among the blood-sucking Diptera.
It is now clear, that not only in the tropics but throughout the Soviet Union, blackflies are transmitters of several diseases of domestic animals, mainly onchocerciasis of cattle and reindeer and many dangerous diseases of domestic fowl. Hence blackflies are of medico-veterinary and sanitary-epidemiological importance.
Unlike other blood-sucking insects such as the malarial mosquito, blackflies have hitherto been relatively poorly studies. The purposes of the present volume is to provide a brief description of species and new identification keys. It primarily incorporates numerous additions to the first edition of Fauna of the USSR. This second edition also includes 18 species from countries adjoining the Palearctic region, which have not been recorded to-date in the Soviet Union, and 30 species described by Enderlein from Europe (whose description has been improved upon) which may be discovered later in the Soviet Union. The fauna of the USSR currently includes about 300 species of blackflies.

Bamboo for Sustainable Development

Proceedings of the Vth International Bamboo Congress and the Vith International Bamboo Workshop, San José, Costa Rica, 2-6 November 1998


Kumar, Ramanuja Rao and Cherla Sastry

Bamboo is a plant that occurs over much of the World. It is probable that billions of the World’s population see, eat and touch bamboo every day. Bamboo contributes significantly to the income generation of many poor farmers. Yet it is an “orphan” crop – largely ignored by the main landholding agencies – forestry and agriculture.
This volume contains most of the papers presented at the joint Fifthth International Bamboo Congress and Sixth International Bamboo Workshop held in San José, Costa Rica, 1998, organized by the International Bamboo Association (IBA) and INBAR. The book is divided into four parts: Bamboo Resources and Socio-economics; Bamboo Propagation and Management; Bamboo Engineering and Construction; Bamboo Design and Utilization. The topics covered include varied aspects of bamboo, such as: from bamboo resources of Mexico to bamboos of Ethiopia; from bamboo afforestation of a mined area to bamboo as a food and fiber alternative in an island; from bamboo drippers to bamboo wheelchairs; from teaching architecture with bamboo to an international building code for bamboo; from silviculture of Guadua bamboo to flowering of Moso bamboo; and many more.
This publication serves to highlight the usefulness of bamboo in aiding developing countries in their sustainable social, economic and environmental development.


This is the first comprehensive, reliable, well-illustrated book covering the enormous diversity of Australian moths, summarising our knowledge of them, and presenting much original work.
More than 1,000 of the 10,000 named Australian species are figured in colour of halftone photographs. Also included is an up-to-date nomenclature and a wealth of information on distribution, larval food plants, and the fascinating behaviour of these often colourful insects. Emphasis is given to the living insects and the means they employ to cope with environmental pressures. There are also authoritative accounts of the structure, life history, biology, population control, economic significance, evolution and geographical distribution. A modern classification of the world fauna is provided, and detailed information on those families occurring in Australia, with descriptions and figures of egg, larval, pupal and adult structure, and discussions of the biology. A section on collecting and studying moths, a glossary, an index, a table of the larval food plants and an extensive list of references are additional features.

Norway Spruce Conversion

Options and Consequences


Edited by Heinrich Spiecker, Jörg Hansen, Emil Klimo, Jens Peter Skovsgaard, Hubert Sterba and Konstantin von Teuffel

Up to the end of the 19th century, many European forests suffered from devastation and soil deterioration, which caused fears of timber shortage. In order to counteract this possible shortage, many forest areas were reforested with coniferous tree species, especially Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst). Consequently, coniferous forests (often Norway spruce forests), consisting of trees of the same age, were established on many sites naturally dominated by broadleaves. As a result, damages caused by storm, snow, ice, drought, insects, fungi and possibly soil degradation seemed to occur more frequently in these secondary Norway spruce forests than in forests consisting of species better adapted to the ambient conditions. Conversion of Norway spruce stands may reduce these risks and upgrade biodiversity and the genetic potential of forests. As the economic results of forestry, future wood markets and various other goods and services that are provided to society by forest ecosystems, are affected by present and future decision-making, all aspects of conversion must be well understood.
EFI’s Regional Project Centre, CONFOREST, is continuously striving to improve implementation of conversion projects by consolidation of the expertise available in all forestry disciplines. This book comprises the findings in all conversion-related areas aiming to consider ecosystem needs while ensuring availability of silvicultural methods and operational feasibility of their implementation. Simultaneously, the cost-effectiveness of conversion scenarios is analysed by forestry economists. Since a change in public perception and ecological awareness may cause policy makers to either or not endorse further conversion efforts, input by experts in forestry politics is also provided.