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Edited by Henk Hillenaar

Il y a soixante ans Ely Carcassonne fit paraître son ?Etat présent des études sur Fénelon, ouvrage qui a rendu de très grands services à tous ceux qui depuis lors ont écrit sur l'archevêque de Cambrai. Carcassonne, mort peu de temps après, aurait sans doute été heureusement surpris s'il avait pu connaître la richesse des travaux qui ont suivi les siens ce dernier demi-siècle. L'état présent des travaux sur Fénelon n'est plus du tout en 1999 ce qu'il était en 1939. La bibliographie assez impressionnante que René Faille a rédigée pour ce volume en fait foi.
La publication de la Correspondance de Fénelon , achevée en 1999, dont les Tables paraîtront sous peu, puis celle des Oeuvres de Fénelon dans la Bibliothèque de la Pléiade constituent sans doute l'aboutissement de ce nouvel élan des études féneloniennes, dont Jean Orcibal et plus tard Jacques Le Brun ont été les principaux instigateurs. Leurs éditions critiques forment aussi le point de départ des recherches qu'une nouvelle génération de chercheurs, avec d'autres centres d'intérêt et d'autres orientations de travail, va entreprendre ou a déjà entrepris.'où l'idée de faire, plus d'un demi-siècle après l'ouvrage d'Ely Carcassonne, un Etat présent des travaux sur Fénelon II , dans l'espoir qu'un tel recueil pourra rendre à cette nouvelle génération des services analogues à ceux qu'a fournis le fameux Etat présent de Carcassonne à leurs prédécesseurs. Mais ce que ce dernier avait fait tout seul, est devenu en 1999 le travail d'une équipe de 'féneloniens'. Les différents membres de cette équipe ont eu une double tâche: dire ce qui leur paraissait essentiel dans le domaine qui leur avait été confié et, surtout, donner un aperçu historique et critique des travaux parus dans ce même domaine ces soixante dernières années. On verra que certains auteurs se sont surtout arrêtés au premier objectif. Il n'empêche que dans son ensemble ce recueil contient d'abord l'histoire de ce qui s'est fait, ce dernier demi-siècle, autour de l'oeuvre de l'archevêque de Cambrai. Nous espérons que, dans cette qualité avant tout, il pourra être utile aux lecteurs.
Pour leur délibérations, les auteurs de cet ouvrage se sont réunis, à Groningue, aux Pays Bas, en juin 1999, trois cents ans après la parution de Télémaque , trois cents ans également après la condamnation des Maximes des saints . Ce recueil est donc aussi quelque peu une commémoration.

Towards a Methodology for the Investigation of Norms in Audiovisual Translation

The Choice between Subtitling and Revoicing in Greece. Amsterdam

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Fotios Karamitroglou

Here is presented for the first time a methodology for the investigation of norms which operate in the field of audiovisual translation. Based on the findings of the polysystem approach to translation, the present work aims to demonstrate that it is possible to investigate audiovisual translation and the norms that operate in it in a systematic way.
Human agents, (audiovisual) products, recipients, and the mode itself are thoroughly investigated and stratified under a lower, middle and upper level. Specific techniques for collecting and analysing data are suggested.
The model is tentatively applied to the investigation of norms which seem to determine the choice between subtitling and revoicing children's TV programmes in Greece. However, one will soon notice that the same model could be applied for the investigation of audiovisual translation norms in any other country. But not only that: one will quickly realise that, with minute modifications, the same model can prove effective for the study of norms in other modes of written translation too. Therefore, this volume can be of a high interest not only to audiovisual translation scholars and practitioners, but to general translation scholars and students of translation proper as well.

Aspects of Metamorphosis

Fictional Representations of the Becoming Human

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D.B.D. Asker

Aspects of Metamorphosis: Fictional Representations of the Becoming Human explores the various forms of metamorphosis found in literature – mostly modern fiction but informed by earlier examples – and the premises upon which the literature of transformation may be said to depend. Instances of metamorphosis are very widespread in modern literature but as yet there has been no attempt to describe this literary-anthropological phenomenon from a larger perspective. This study approaches such a task. The focus of Aspects of Metamorphosis is on human-animal fictional metamorphoses which embody the concept of becoming-human. Gilles Deleuze describes metamorphosis (especially in Kafka) as the becoming-animal. Across the wide range of examples of literary metamorphosis in different languages and cultures, I describe the becoming-animal as an aspect of the becoming human, a radical approach to mankind’s perception of itself, and restoration to itself, through an animal other. Franz Kafka is in many ways an odd man out in the crowd of modern metamorphosists. Other authors across borders, political, geographical and linguistic, present a humanist and moralist perspective that does not represent a fundamental break with the norms and cultural traditions rooted in the past.

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Nicholas Meihuizen

In recent years Yeats scholarship has been, to a large extent, historically-based in emphasis. Much has been gained from this emphasis, if we consider the refinement of critical awareness resulting from a better understanding of the intricate relationship between the poet and his times. However, the present author feels that an exclusive adherence to this approach impacts negatively on our ability to appreciate and understand Yeatsian creativity from within the internally located imperatives of creativity itself, as opposed to our understanding it on the basis of aesthetically constitutive socio-historical forces operative from without. He feels a need to relocate the study of Yeats in the work and thought of the poet himself, to focus again on the poet’s own myth-making. To this end Nicholas Meihuizen examines this myth-making as it relates to certain archetypal figures, places, and structures. The figures in question are the antagonist and goddess, embodiments of conflict and feminine forces in Yeats, and they participate in a lively drama within the places and shapes considered sacred by the poet: places such as the Sligo district and Byzantium; shapes such as the circling gyres of his system. The book should be interesting and valuable to students and scholars of varying degrees of acquaintance with the poet. To long-time Yeatsians it offers fresh perspectives onto important works and preoccupations. To new students it offers a means of exploring wide-ranging material within a few central, interrelated frames, a means that mirrors Yeats’s own commitment to unity in diversity.

Kafka's Novels

An Interpretation

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Patrick Bridgwater

Kafka's three novels, to be understood as an ever more intricate portrayal of the inner life of one central character (Henry James's 'centre of consciousness'), each reflecting the problems of their self-critical creator, are tantamount to dreams. The hieroglyphic, pictorial language in which they are written is the symbolic language in which dreams and thoughts on the edge of sleep are visualized. Not for nothing did Kafka define his writing as a matter of fantasizing with whole orchestras of [free] associations. Written in a deliberately enhanced hypnagogic state, these novels embody the alternative logic of dreams, with the emphasis on chains of association and verbal bridges between words and word-complexes. The product of many years' preoccupation with its subject, Patrick Bridgwater's new book is an original, chapter-by-chapter study of three extraordinarily detailed novels, of each of which it offers a radically new reading that makes more, and different, sense than any previous reading. In Barthes' terms these fascinating novels are 'unreadable', but the present book shows that, properly read, they are entirely, if ambiguously, readable. Rooted in Kafka's use of language, it consistently explores, in detail, (i) the linguistic implications of the dreamlike nature of his work, (ii) the metaphors he takes literally, and (iii) the ambiguities of so many of the words he chooses to use. In doing so it takes account not only of the secondary meanings of German words and the sometimes dated metaphors of which Kafka, taking them literally, spins his text, but also, where relevant, of Czech and Italian etymology. Split, for ease of reference, into chapters corresponding to the chapters of the novels in the new Originalfassung, the book is aimed at all readers of Kafka with a knowledge of German, for the author shows that Kafka's texts can be understood only in the language in which they were written: because Kafka's meaning is often hidden beneath the surface of the text, conveyed via secondary meanings that are specific to German, any translation is necessarily an Oberflächenübersetzung.

Back to the Present: Forward to the Past, Volume I

Irish Writing and History since 1798

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Edited by Patricia A. Lynch, Joachim Fischer and Brian Coates

The island of Ireland, north and south, has produced a great diversity of writing in both English and Irish for hundreds of years, often using the memories embodied in its competing views of history as a fruitful source of literary inspiration. Placing Irish literature in an international context, these two volumes explore the connection between Irish history and literature, in particular the Rebellion of 1798, in a more comprehensive, diverse and multi-faceted way than has often been the case in the past. The fifty-three authors bring their national and personal viewpoints as well as their critical judgements to bear on Irish literature in these stimulating articles. The contributions also deal with topics such as Gothic literature, ideology, and identity, as well as gender issues, connections with the other arts, regional Irish literature, in particular that of the city of Limerick, translations, the works of Joyce, and comparisons with the literature of other nations. The contributors are all members of IASIL (International Association for the Study of Irish Literatures). Back to the Present: Forward to the Past. Irish Writing and History since 1798 will be of interest to both literary scholars and professional historians, but also to the general student of Irish writing and Irish culture.

Elective Affinities

Testing Word and Image Relationships

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Edited by Véronique Plesch, Catriona MacLeod and Charlotte Schoell-Glass

This volume presents the impressive range of scholarly affinities, approaches, and subjects that characterize today’s word and image studies. The essays, a selection of papers first presented in 2005 at the seventh international conference of the International Association of Word and Image Studies/Association Internationale pour l’Étude des Rapports entre Texte et Image that took place in Philadelphia, are case studies of the diverse configurations of the textual and the iconic. “Elective affinities” — a notion originally borrowed by Goethe for his 1809 novel of the same title from eighteenth-century chemistry — here refers to the active role of the two partners in the relationship of the pictorial and the verbal. Following the experimental modalities opened up by Goethe, the present volume is divided into three sections, which explore, respectively, how words and images can merge in harmony, engage in conflicts and contestations, and, finally, interact in an experimental way that self-consciously tests the boundaries and relations among verbal and visual arts. New perspectives on word and image relationships emerge, in periods, national traditions, works, and materials as different as (among many others) an installation by Marcel Duchamp and the manual accompanying it; the impact of artificial light sources on literature and art; nineteenth-century British illustrations of Native Americans; the contemporary comic book; a seventeenth-century Italian devotional manuscript uniting text, image, and music; Chinese body and performance art..

Stylistics

Prospect & Retrospect

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Edited by David L. Hoover and Sharon Lattig

Stylistics: Prospect & Retrospect looks backward toward classic and foundational approaches and texts that helped to establish the field of stylistics. It also looks forward by examining recent innovations that seem likely to alter the ways in which style is studied in the years to come. The essays presented here, written by an array of experts from nine countries on four continents, employ a wide range of approaches to works that range from romantic poetry to contemporary fiction and from traditional folktales and nursery rhymes to contemporary film. The variety of authors, approaches, and works found here testifies to the vitality of the field of stylistics, and these essays should appeal to all those interested in the nature of style and in the history and future of stylistics.

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Edited by Charlotte Krauss and Tatiana Victoroff

Le présent ouvrage donne une vue d’ensemble des recherches actuelles consacrées à l’émigration russe en France. Il ose une approche nouvelle en confrontant les émigrés russes réels, dont de nombreux écrivains et poètes russes transitant par la France ou s’y installant, aux figures fictionnelles reflétant les retentissements de ces flux migratoires dans l’imaginaire du pays d’accueil. Le choix inhabituel d’une période très longue, du début du XIXe siècle à nos jours, permet de suivre les continuités et les évolutions, des migrations passagères et cas individuels sous le régime tsariste aux différentes vagues de l’émigration après la Révolution russe. Le recueil se compose d’une trentaine d’articles rédigés par des chercheurs internationaux, spécialistes de littératures russe, française et comparée. Leurs contributions, qui rendent compte de la complexité du phénomène, sont accompagnées de plusieurs témoignages ainsi que de nombreuses illustrations permettant de visualiser aussi bien la réalité que la fiction de l’émigration russe en France.

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Edited by Poul Houe and Sven Hakon Rossel

Documentary literature became an international phenomenon on the cultural and political scene in the 1960s and 1970s. From the American New Journalism in works by such writers as Norman Mailer and Tom Wolfe to the German Industriereportagen by Günther Wallraff and others, documentarism presented a variety of controversial interplays between facts and fiction labeled as ‘faction,' ‘fables of fact' or the like.
Scandinavian literature made important and unique contributions to this international movement, and Documentarism in Scandinavian Literature is the first comprehensive volume ever published on the historical significance and future implications of these Nordic dimensions of documentarism and their international context. The volume is centered on Swedish documentary literature in the 1960s and 1970s — and on such major writers as Per Olov Enquist, Sven Lindqvist, Sara Lidman, and Per Olov Sundman — but the powerful voices of Danish writer Thorkild Hansen and Norwegian novelist Dag Solstad are also heard in its critical concert.
The diversity of Documentarism in Scandinavian Literature is further enhanced by surveys and analyses of the historical background for more recent works and activities, and by theoretical inquiries into the epistemological status of documentarism, its theoretical, narrative, and theatrical devices, its predominant genres and links to other modes of mass communication, and its political affiliations and implications.
For readers already familiar with its subject matter Documentarism in Scandinavian Literature offers an opportunity to revisit and recontextualize a crucial moment in their recent cultural past. For readers who have yet to be exposed to documentary works of fiction, the volume presents a timely theoretical, historical, and critical introduction to the key problematics and potentials of their novel field of interest. Whether viewed as part of the past or part of the present, documentarism remains an intellectual challenge, which this volume is aimed at addressing.
Documentarism in Scandinavian Literature is edited by two Scandinavian scholars living abroad, and its essays are written by senior and junior scholars and critics from Scandinavia, Europe, and America; an interview with Per Olov Enquist and an autobio-graphical piece by Sven Lindqvist complete the volume.