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Edited by Pierre Goffic

Le « présent » , terme équivoque : temps vécu (étroit comme l'instant ou large comme l'actualité) et/ou paradigme linguistique (en français)... Pointer l'ambiguïté ne suffit pas à l'exorciser ! Et en quoi ou comment le second renvoie-t-il à la réalité du premier ? J.M. Fournier retrace les efforts des grammairiens du XVIIIème siècle: de la conception d'un présent linguistique lié à l'instant d'énonciation (chez Arnauld et Lancelot), à celle d'un présent marquant l'actualité étendue (chez Girard ou Harris), et à celle d'un présent indéfini et neutre, renvoyant par défaut à l'actualité, chez Beauzée. S. Mellet revendique l'héritage de Beauzée, en proposant une vision aspectuelle du présent construisant sa propre actualité par auto-repérage.
De même A. Jaubert, qui propose un présent éternellement perçu comme advenant et transportant avec lui son repère. Aux exemples littéraires de l'une et de l'autre répondent les extraits du Monde Diplomatique dans lesquels H. Chuquet relève la valeur à la fois aoristique et commentative des présents. P. Le Goffic et F. Lab tournent le présent vers l'avenir: le présent « pro futuro » de « Demain, je suis à Bruxelles » n'est temporel qu'à travers sa valeur modale de constat anticipé d'une réalité programmée. Enfin O. Soutet cherche, à la lumière des concepts guillaumiens, la place d'un présent subjonctif dans le système français. Impossible de lier ou de délier absolument présent linguistique et présent vécu ... Ce recueil se veut un jalon sur la route, encore longue sans doute, d'une élucidation de leurs rapports.

Edited by Rosalind Horowitz and S. Jay Samuels

Written by respected researchers in their field, this book is about the skills beyond basic word recognition that are necessary for the processing and comprehension of spoken and written language. The major topics presented are as follows: language and text analysis; cognitive processing and comprehension; development of literacy; literacy and schooling; and, factors influencing listening and reading.

Corpus-Based Research into Language

In honour of Jan Aarts

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Edited by Nelleke Oostdijk and Pieter de Haan

For over two decades Jan Aarts has been actively involved in corpus linguistic research. He was the instigator of a large number of projects, and he was responsible for what has become known as the Nijmegen approach to corpus linguistics. It is thanks to him that words like TOSCA and LDB have become household names in the corpus linguistic community.
The present volume has been collected in his honour. The contributions in it cover a wide range of topics in the field of corpus linguistic research, especially those in which Jan Aarts takes a keen interest: corpus encoding and tagging, parsing and databases, and the linguistic exploration of corpus data. The contributions in this volume discuss work done in this field outside Nijmegen, for the obvious reason that we do not wish to present him with a report on work in which he is himself involved.

The Power of Words

Essays in Lexicography, Lexicology and Semantics. In Honour of Christian J. Kay

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Edited by Graham D. Caie, Carole Hough and Irené Wotherspoon

This volume comprises essays in lexicography, lexicology and semantics by leading international experts in these fields. The contributions cover Old, Middle and Present-Day English and Scots, and specific subjects include medical vocabulary, colour lexemes, and semantic and pragmatic meaning in terms for politeness, money and humour. In the area of Old English studies there are articles on kinship terminology and colour lexemes, and in Middle English a semantic and syntactic study of the overlapping of the verbs dreden and douten. Many of the essays make use of the Historical Thesaurus of English project at the University of Glasgow, and pay tribute to its Director, Professor Christian Kay; e.g., one article demonstrates how the HTE, a project which is at the interface between historical semantics and lexicography, may present a rich resource for information about the lexicalization of concepts within our culture, such as changing social attitudes in the area of will, consent and coercion. Other resources, such as The Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, and the Oxford English Dictionary provide a rich source for information on historical lexicography, semantics and editing. A number of essays concern the Scots language, such as an analysis of evaluative terms in modern Scots speech and writing, the rich potential of rhyme in Scots, and the role of lexicon in th- fronting in Glaswegian.

Handbook of Phonological Development

From the Perspective of Constraint-Based Nonlinear Phonology

Joseph Stemberger and Barbara Bernhardt

This book combines a vast collection of data on phonological acquisition with close attention to Optimality Theory. It blends the studies of linguistics, psycholinguistics, and speech-language pathology in reference to phonological development. It also contains a step-by-step evaluation of competing theories while presenting a complete view of non-linear phonology, including adult grammar, psychological processing, first and second language acquisition, and inter-generational language changes. The authors focus on speech production rather than perception, emphasizing data from the period of real words. The many tables and phonological trees help to make this timely and useful study accessible to students and professionals alike. Among its key features it: addresses the full range of phonological patterns observed in children's speech; surveys patterns of development in children's speech; and provides the only existing single framework for children's phonological development.

Series:

Gerard Giordano

This book examines twentieth century reading education. Among the major educational issues reviewed are testing, diagnosis, individualized education, textbooks, readability, multiculturalism, bi-lingualism, disability, and technology. The book explores attempts by educators and psychologists to answer theoretical as well as practical questions about why only some students developed literacy skills. It examines the efforts to prevent reading failure as well as to aid those learners who had not learned to read. The four types of remedial programs explored are skills-based, language-based, literature-based, and technology-based. The book identifies the social, emotional, physical, and cognitive factors that have been linked to remedial reading instruction. Based on a review of more than 3000 primary sources from the 1800s to the present, extensive quotations have been integrated into the text to give readers a sense of intellectual involvement with the educators who are discussed.

Stuart Robson

Whenever Javanese scholars are asked to name the high points of their literature, almost certainly they will include the Wédhatama. This is because it is considered to contain the ‘highest wisdom’ appropriately cast in a mould of fine poetic language.
The challenge of translation has already been met by several others, so that we can speak of ongoing process of interpretation, in which the present English translation represents only the most recent stage and in turn invites the critics to correct and improve it, as our knowledge of Javanese language and literature grows and deepens. On the other hand, though, any statement on this subject, relating to the highest spiritual truths, can be no more than an approximation; in the end words fail, leaving only something like a star or flame pointing the way onward (compare Wédhatama IV .21, and see the drawing on the front cover).
This working paper offers an English translation, accompanied by the standard Javanese text, for the perusal of students, with a short introduction and a number of explanatory notes intended to aid the process of interpretation.

Edited by Antonella Sorace, Caroline Heycock and Richard Shilcock

Language Acquisition has been a much-disputed territory over which the conflicting claims of cognitive scientists, psychologists and linguists have long been fought. While for years each discipline has kept within its own theoretical frameworks, a fruitful recent development has been the increase in cross-disciplinary fertilisation of ideas between researchers of different orientations. It is in this spirit of collaboration that the GALA conferences on Language Acquisition have taken off. The aim of GALA '97 was to further promote cross-fertilisation across the different disciplines. The conference was an overwhelming success and this volume reflects both the eminence of the invited speakers and the richness of current debate. Presenting current cutting-edge research, the book fully illustrates the fruitfulness of the convergence of endeavours between researchers of different orientations. Containing a valuable introductory chapter from the editors that sets out the theoretical differences and standpoints on fundamental questions in language acquisition, the book presents eight papers based on the plenary lectures given at the conference. With contributions from major figures in the field, the book addresses the full range of core issues in Language Acquisition from the different viewpoints (lexical-semantic theory, generative grammar, optimality theory, experimental speech perception, computational modelling).

Stuart Robson

The personal view of philology presented in the Working Paper is both a stocktaking and a programme for development. At a time when Indonesian and foreign scholars are asking questions about the Indonesian ‘classical literary heritage’, a fresh impulse is needed to propel the work of philologists forward. Their work is to make texts accessible, and they achieve this through both the techniques of presentation and of explanation and interpretation; philology is thus more than mere ‘textual criticism’, according to Stuart Robson.
Existing views are assessed in a critical but balanced manner and fruitful avenues of exploration are pointed to. It turns out that thinking on philology is moving ahead faster than one might suspect, so that the form of the Working Paper is appropriate to suggest an on-going process, where views neglected today may receive more attention tomorrow.
The publication of texts from manuscript materials in Indonesian languages calls for a consideration of method: no one method is prescribed; one has to take account of genre, it is suggested, as well as textual tradition. Furthermore, part of the aesthetic content of a text is lost if we fail to consider how it sounds, its ‘music’. And finally, there is surely room for more literary translations from Indonesian texts—all part of an endeavour to introduce them to a wider audience and to foster a better understanding of their nature and content.

Anfangsgeschichten / Origin Stories

Der Beginn volkssprachiger Schriftlichkeit in komparatistischer Perspektive / The Rise of Vernacular Literacy in a Comparative Perspective

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Edited by Elke Krotz, Stephan Müller, Norbert Kössinger, Pavlina Rychterova and Pavlína Rychterová

From the fifth to the sixteenth centuries, what we know today as the “vernacular languages” developed across Europe. The present volume focuses from a determinedly comparative perspective on the process of the integration of the linguae vernaculae vel barbaricae into the domain of literacy and learning. Exemplary case studies explore the issue of the beginnings of vernacular literacy at the intersection of historical sciences, philology, linguistics, media history, and literary sciences to analyse discernable patterns and norms. In this way, the common and traditional national philological narratives of the respective “Origin Stories of written tradition” are questioned and discussed.