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Edited by Catherine Armstrong and Jaya Priyardarshini

Edited by Ludger Honnefelder, Roberto Hofmeister Pich and Roberto Hofmeister Pich

The scholarly purpose of the volume is to restate and describe the historical reception of John Duns Scotus’ meta-physics, which, by taking the real concept of “being as being” as the first object of first philosophy, laid the ground-work for what scholars have called “the second beginning of metaphysics” in Western philosophy.
Scotus outlined a theory of transcendental concepts that includes an analysis of the concept of being and its prop-erties, and a general analysis of modalities and intrinsic modes, paving the way for a view of metaphysics as a sci-ence of “possible being.” From the fourteenth to the eighteenth century Scotists invented and developed special concepts that could embrace both real being and the being of reason. The investigation of the metaphysics of the transcendentals by subsequent thinkers who were guided by Scotus is the central focus of the present collective book.

Mental Representation and Self-Consciousness

From Basic Self-Representation to Self-Related Cognition

Gottfried Vossgerau

One oft the most fascinating abilities of humans is the ability to become conscious of the own physical and mental states. In this systematic investigation of self-consciousness, a representational theory is developed that is able to distinguish between different levels of self-consciousness. The most basic levels are already present in such simple animals as ants. From these basic forms, which are also relevant for adult human self-consciousness, high-level self-consciousness including self-knowledge can arise. Thereby, the theory is not only able to integrate developmental considerations but also to sharply distinguish different aspects of the complex phenomenon self-consciousness. Pathological breakdowns of these different aspects, as they can be found in schizophrenia, are explained by specific impairments on different levels of self-representation. In this way, the work shows that a naturalistic theory of self-consciousness is possible, if the analysis starts with very simple and basic mechanisms instead of starting on the 'top of the iceberg'.

Concepts and Categorization

Systematic and Historical Perspectives

Edited by David Hommen, Christoph Kann and Tanja Oswald

The study of concepts lies at the intersection of various disciplines, both analytic and empiric. The rising cognitive sciences, for instance, are interested in concepts insofar as they are used in an explanation of such diverse epistemic phenomena like categorization, inference, memory, learning, and decision-making. In philosophy, the challenge imposed by conceptualization consists, among other things, in accommodating reverse intuitions about concepts like shareability, mind-dependency, mediation between reference, knowledge and reality, etc. While researchers have collaborated more and more to contribute to a unified understanding of concepts and categorization, the joint venture unfortunately suffers (so far) from the fact that it is generally left unclear how exactly the different approaches undertaken in the participating sciences relate to each other. What do psychologists and philosophers mean by the notion of a concept? Is there a core-theory of concepts and categorization underlying analytical and empirical studies? The present collection of essays addresses these and related questions and tries to answer them from both a systematic and a historical perspective.

Edited by Kelly Gardiner and Sina V. Pfister

Edited by Michael Quante, Hiroshi Goto, Tim Rojek and Shingo Segawa

Der Band bringt deutsche wie japanische Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler zusammen, die sich dem Begriff der Person in seinen Dimensionen und vielfältigen Debattenkontexten sowie seinen historischen Prägungen widmen. Die Beiträge des Bandes gehen den historischen Konturen sowie systematischen Potenzialen des Begriffs nach. So werden die zahlreichen Kontexte theoretischer wie praktischer, klassischer wie zeitgenössischer Philosophie explizit, für die der Begriff der Person eine zentrale Rolle spielt.

Staunen

Perspektiven eines Phänomens zwischen Natur und Kultur

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Edited by Timo Kehren, Carolin Krahn, Georg Oswald and Christoph Poetsch

Was geschieht, wenn Menschen ins Staunen geraten? Der vorliegende Band verortet diese Frage im Spannungsfeld von Natur und Kultur und greift hierzu auf Impulse aus Philosophie, Kunst, Musik, Literatur, Technik und Naturwissenschaften zurück. Ausgehend von unterschiedlichen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen nähern sich die hier versammelten Autoren dem Staunen systematisch an. Die verschiedenen fachlichen Perspektiven verbindet dabei das Anliegen zu untersuchen, wie sich das Staunen im konkreten Einzelfall in das Verhältnis von Natur und Kultur einschreibt. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das Staunen weit mehr als nur ein momentbezogener Affekt jenseits des menschlichen Verstandes ist.

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Edited by Andreas Kablitz and Otfried Höffe

Der Band Philosophie in Europa erörtert die Frage, ob es eine spezifisch europäische Philosophie gibt. In ideengeschichtlicher und in systematischer Hinsicht wird untersucht, ob und inwiefern die Philosophie aus Europa stammt, wie die Rezeption der Philosophie innerhalb, auch außerhalb Europas verlief und noch verläuft.
Als akademisches Fach gesehen spielt die Philosophie in der heutigen Forschungslandschaft kaum eine herausragende Rolle. Trotzdem wird sie von vielen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, darüber hinaus von den Künsten, insbesondere aber von Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik als Gesprächspartner gesucht, zugleich herausgefordert. In der geistigen Entwicklung Europas ist die Philosophie einer der bedeutsamsten Faktoren. Nicht zuletzt wird die europäische, mittlerweile europäisch-nordamerikanische Philosophie weltweit gelehrt. Der Band Philosophie in Europa erörtert die Frage, ob es eine spezifisch europäische Philosophie gibt.

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Edited by Paul André Harris and Michael Crawford

The essays in this volume all originated at the 2001 conference of the International Society for the Study of Time. The theme 'Time and Uncertainty' sounds redundant, but the contributions try to come to terms with the irreducible openness of time and the impermanence of life. The essays from various disciplines have been grouped around 'fracture and rupture' (grappling with time and uncertainty as a breach) and 'rapture and structure (solving uncertainty into pattern).