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Value Contrasts and Consensus in Present-Day Europe

Painting Europe’s Moral Landscapes

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Edited by Wil Arts and Loek Halman

People's fundamental values can be conceived of as conceptions of what is desirable. They influence their selection from available modes, means and ends of action. Because of the societal importance of values they deserve scholarly attention. This volume inquires into the values present-day Europeans cherish by empirically analyzing the data of 2008/2010 wave of the European Values Study and explaining the consensus and contrasts in value orientations found. The contributors to this volume try to capture the diversities and similarities in value orientations between contemporary European countries in a range of life-spheres by unravelling context and composition effects. They are in search of evidence that either country level factors such as institutional arrangements or the composition of the populations of countries in terms of gender, age, socio-economic status, religion etcetera have the greatest impact. By doing so they paint the moral landscapes of Europe today.

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Edited by Andrew Jorgenson and Edward Kick

What is missing in the mounting literature on globalization is a focused theoretical foundation with parallel empirical examinations of global structures and their environmental consequences. The articles in this volume examine how the world-economy and related non-economic forms of global structuring impact the natural environment and the living conditions of human populations living across the globe. Environmental dynamics in areas as diverse as Ancient Egypt and the Modern Amazon are presented for readers who are new to the world-systems approach and for others interested in recent efforts to link environmental outcomes and antecedents to global processes.

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Edited by Proshanta Nandi and Shahid Shahidullah

The societies of the present world are experiencing many turbulent changes. New forces of change and modernization are driving people, business and cultures across borders. The world has become a home to a new generation of homo sapiens who are curious about others but, at the same time, cherish to preserve their own cultures. What is the nature of this evolving world society? Is the world driving toward a new global civilization—an "end of history"— or an inevitable civilizational clash?
The present volume has brought together leading scholars in the field to examine the concept of globalization, deliberate on the character of its multifaceted nature and expressions, and delineate its impact on the emerging world economy, politics, culture, and science. A number of substantive issues such as the emergence of new global economic inequality, culture and the role of the trans-nationals, nature of the emerging global environmental regimes, rise of the NICs, and the conflicting role of the nation-states in the face of the advancing forces of globalization are addressed. It is contended that globalization should be perceived neither as an unbounded economic progress nor as an expansion of western domination. Globalization is, rather, defined as a new development strategy--a process of change that can be planned, guided, and controlled. For national political and business leaders of the world, the volume provides a blueprint of the emerging areas of policy concerns and guidance. For the world of social science, it presents a road-map of the emerging intellectual issues and challenges.

Contributors are Alessandro Bonanno, Stephen W.K. Chiu, Douglas Constance, Richard J. Estes, R. Scott Frey, Archibald O. Haller, George A. Miller, Proshanta K. Nandi, Winifred R. Poster, J. Timmons Roberts, Shahid M. Shahidullah, Bam Dev Sharda, and Alvin Y. So.

Religion in Secularizing Society

The Europeans’ Religion at the End of the 20th Century

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Edited by Loek Halman and Ole Riis

The cross-national analyses of Europe’s patterns of religious and moral orientations presented in this book are all based on the 1990 European Values Study survey data and some use both 1981 and 1990 data. Use is also made of more recent data gathered in 1995/1997 within the framework of the World Values Study, directed by Ron Inglehart, as well as data from a recent pilot survey in Japan. The contributions in this book are not written within a common theoretical framework, but from different theoretical perspectives and scientific backgrounds and interests. However, a majority of the chapters focus on the Catholic and Protestant divide in Europe. All in all, the contributions in this book show (parts) of the religious and moral culture in contemporary secularizing societies.

From Cold War to Cold Peace?

A Comparative Empirical Study of Russian and Western Political Cultures

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Loek Halman, Peter Ester and Vladimir Rukavishnikov

The cross-national analyses of Western and Russian political cultures presented in this book are partly based on the 1990 EVS data. Another data source comes from surveys that were conducted since the late 1980s by the Department of Social Dynamics of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPR RAS) This Volume pictures a wide variety of values in the social and political domain and reveals unique insights in Russian culture. It makes clear that, despite many differences, Russian and Westerners have also many things in common as far as basic values are concerned.

This is the fourth volume in the series. The first book is The Individualizing Socitey (1993, 1994) edited by Peter Ester, Loek Halman and Ruud de Moor. The second book is Values in Western Societies (1995) edited by Ruud de Moor. A third book is titled Political Value Change in Western Democracies (1996) and is edited by Loek Halman and Neil Nevitte.

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C.N. Dubelaar

The first scholarly studies on South American and Caribbean rock-carvings did not appear until the beginning of the twentieth century. Even today most archaeologists working in the field of South American and Caribbean prehistory neglect the testimony of petroglyphs. To remedy this situation, the author of the present work offers a critical summary of the crucial data for an analysis of South American and Antillean rock inscriptions. He discusses the techniques used in making the carvings, the nature of the sites, and the orientation of the inscriptions. He examines possible methods of dating the petroglyph, arguing that, beyond the observation that they are undoubtedly pre-Columbian, so far no firm conclusion to their relative or absolute dates can be drawn. Similar limitations apply to the interpretation of the rock inscriptions. Although one may glimpse possible pictorial, symbolic or social significations, no reliable conclusions can be drawn about their exact function and meaning, given the scarcity of data on the cultural background of the petroglyph carvers.
The author therefore proposes an alternative approach, isolating eighteen distinct motifs and thus classifying the South American and Antillean petroglyphs according to their geographical distribution. This type of analysis enables the inscriptions to be assigned to specific culture areas. The author concludes the study by suggesting a number of indispensable elements of future petroglyph inventories.

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Edited by Wil Arts and Loek Halman

The comparative method is at the core of sociological inquiry and gained new importance, emphasis and practitioners particularly after the second world war as a consequence of a large variety of international and global scale developments.
The contributions to this book regard nations or countries as contextual units of analysis and treat them as variables. Theoretical explanations are presented of how social phenomena are systematically related to characteristics of the nation states and these explanations are tested empirically using the qualitative tools of mainstream sociology.
The chapters in this book can be useful to a broad audience and a range of social scientists who are interested in the understanding of contemporary social phenomena that are no longer limited to national borders but that are transnational or of a global order.

Contributors are Toril Aalberg, Wil Arts, Carole B. Burgoyne, Loek Halman, Piet Hermkens, Guillermina Jasso, Mebs Kanji, James R. Kluegel, Ola Listhaug, David S. Mason, Petr Matěju, Neil Nevitte, Thorleif Pettersson, David A. Routh, Svetlana Sidorenko-Stephenson, Johan Verweij, Bernd Wegener, and Peter Van Wijck.

Ascetic Culture

Renunciation and Worldly Engagement

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Edited by K. Ishwaran

The collection of papers in Ascetic Culture: Renunciation and Worldly Engagement was entirely conceived and developed by K. Ishwaran, who died in June 1998. The original concept was to focus on "Tradition and Innovation in Monastic Life in South Asia", a topic which combined two of Ishwaran’s major interests: comparative studies of the monastic systems of south Asia, and criticism of Western anthropological and sociological assumptions of tradition and modernity being antithetical, especially with regard to traditional religions.
Ishwaran saw this collection of papers as reinforcing the "demise of universalistic projects, all encompassing grand master narratives and similar globally integrative, theoretical or empirical enterprises in social discourse" flowing from the post-structural and post-modernist revolutions in the social sciences. Later he conceived of broadening this topic to be more liberally comparative, to include major religious traditions around the world. The new title was to be "Tradition and Modernity in Monastic orders in Contemporary Societies". Finally, he broadened the theme to the present title of his collection.

Taken together, the articles appearing in this book strongly support Ishwaran’s theses. First, is the obvious point that eremitism and asceticism are far more complex than commonly understood in the scholarly world. If ever a general understanding of these interrelated phenomena is developed, careful examination not only how they are found in these cultures and traditions but also study of their particular manifestations in individual movements, places, cultures, social groups etc. must take place. The second thesis is clearly established by the range of these papers: ascetic traditions are not only inimical to modernity, they may be found at the heart of certain contemporary social and cultural developments.

K. Ishwaran has rendered the study of religion in particular and the social sciences in general an important service with this anthology.

Contributers are John E. Cort, Alan Davies, Balkrishna G. Gokhale, Daniel Gold, Shaman Hatley, Sohail Inayatullah, Klaus K. Klostermaier, David Miller, S.A. Nigosian, Jordan Paper, and Earle H. Waugh.

Democracy and Democratization in Africa

Towards the 21st Century

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Edited by Udogu

The 9 contributors to this volume are Africanists whose comprehension of the political "vernacular" of Africa helped to sharpen their analyses of a continent on the eve of a new millennium and in the aftermath of the Cold War. The debate over the most relevant political models for African countries has till recently been conducted against a backdrop of the competing claims of socialism and capitalism. Attempts to consolidate democracy and constitutional have taken place in the shadow of intractable economic problems, prompting the question of whether democracy can survive in Africa without economic prosperity. The papers published here address many of these problems, as well as dealing with the questions of ethnicity, leadership, the power of the military, and prodemocracy movements within African nation states.

Wolves from the Sea

Readings in the Anthropology of the Native Caribbean

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Edited by Neil L. Whitehead

Wolves from the sea brings together the latest work of leading authorities on the archaeology, linguistics, history, and socio-cultural anthropology of native Caribbean groups, particularly that of the Island Carib. In each of these disciplines orthodox theories are critically assessed and new directions for interdisciplinary research suggested.

A central theme that emerges from this volume is the acknowledgement of the plurality of ethnic identities that greeted Columbus and a rejection of the way in which subsequent anthropology has blindly accepted colonial ethnological schema.

The seven contributions in this volume represent the outcome of an international symposium, held in Leiden. The author are Arie Boomert, Berend J. Hoff, Jalil Sued Badillo, Neil L. Whitehead, Peter Hulme, Jay B. Haviser and Charles J.M.R.C. Gullick.