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World Student Christian Federation Archives, Geneva, 1919-1956
A selection from the Geneva archives

Formation of the WSCF
The formation of the WSCF was a radical step toward ecumenical cooperation at a time when no other worldwide, non-Roman Catholic Christian agency based on independent national organizations existed. Advances in transportation and communication at the end of the nineteenth century made realization of the WSCF vision feasible. The work was carried out through conferences and committee meetings, publications, exchanges of literature, and visits to national movements by its secretaries and agents. From its purely Protestant origins, it expanded its membership in 1911 to include Orthodox Christians.

Training ground for Church leaders
The Federation served as a training ground for many individuals who later became prominent in the worldwide life of the Church, including Bishop Azariah of India, Bishop Honda of Japan, T.Z. Koo of China, Nathan Söderblom of Sweden, J.H. Oldham and William Temple of Great Britain, John R. Mott, and W.A. Visser 't Hooft. The reports and letters included in this collection provide insight into the contexts and issues that informed the development of the Church in North and South America, continental Europe, Great Britain, Ireland, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and other areas. Also, the role of women in the international student Christian movement is well documented.

New perspectives on world issues
In its early years, the WSCF focused its energies on the formation and stabilization of national student movements, calling students to the Christian faith and the evangelization of the world. The First World War and its aftermath changed the emphases of the Federation as social problems, international relations, and the issues of pacifism and war came to the foreground. In 1920, the WSCF founded European Student Relief, a vast program of social service provided to thousands of students (later to be carried on by an independent body called International Student Service).

Turbulent time in Church history
The WSCF has been an international interpreter and mediator for national student Christian movements through decades of changing issues, goals, and events. This material has been collected under the supervision of John R. Mott. Detailed reports from the field have been combined with records of theological reflection to provide fascinating reading and valuable "on the ground" documentation of a turbulent time in the world and in Church history.

Organization of the collection
While the WSCF archives at Yale date primarily from the period when John R. Mott was General Secretary and Chairman of the organization (1895-1929), the Geneva materials are the official archives of the WSCF from 1925 onward. This collection focuses on the period 1919 to 1956, with some overlap of dates with the earlier collection in order to avoid gaps of documentation during the period of transition of the base of operations from North America to Geneva.

Correspondence and Reports
The materials chosen for inclusion in this collection are of the same genre as those selected from the earlier archives, including reports and correspondence of committees, conferences, national student movements, secretaries, and officers of the WSCF. Whereas the WSCF archives at Yale were organized according to geographical or topical divisions, and then chronologically within those divisions, the organization of the Geneva archives tends more toward division first by chronological periods, and then by categories such as "Countries," "Secretaries," "Conferences," "Correspondence," etc.

This publication was made possible by the generous support of the Kenneth Scott Latourette Fund, Yale Divinity School Library

Martha Smalley, Yale Divinity School Library & Paul Stuehrenberg, Yale Divinity School Library
World Student Christian Federation Archives, Yale, 1895-1925
A selection from the archives at Yale Divinity School Library

Training ground for future Church leaders
The Federation served as a training ground for many individuals who later became prominent in the worldwide life of the Church, including Bishop Azariah of India, Bishop Honda of Japan, T.Z. Koo of China, Nathan Söderblom of Sweden, J.H. Oldham and William Temple of Great Britain, John R. Mott, and W.A. Visser 't Hooft. The reports and letters included in this collection provide insight into the contexts and issues that informed the development of the Church in North and South America, continental Europe, Great Britain, Ireland, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and other areas. Also, the role of women in the international student Christian movement is well documented.

Correspondence and History
The records of the World Student Christian Federation held by Yale Divinity School Library constitute the official WSCF archives from 1895 to 1925, but go on to document Federation activities through World War II. A unique classification system, modeled after the Dewey Decimal System, was developed specifically for the archives and the library of the WSCF in the early part of the 20th century by Mrs. Grace J. Livingston, and later updated by Miss Ruth Rouse. The materials chosen for inclusion in this collection are from the "300", "800" and "900" sections of this classification system, representing the "Organization", "Correspondence" and "History" sections of the archive. The materials are subdivided by geographical areas.

Formation of the WSCF
The formation of the WSCF was a radical step toward ecumenical cooperation at a time when no other worldwide, non-Roman Catholic Christian agency based on independent national organizations existed. Advances in transportation and communication at the end of the nineteenth century made realization of the WSCF vision feasible. The work was carried out through conferences and committee meetings, publications, exchanges of literature, and visits to national movements by its secretaries and agents. From its purely Protestant origins, it expanded its membership in 1911 to include Orthodox Christians.

New perspectives on world issues
In its early years, the WSCF focused its energies on the formation and stabilization of national student movements, calling students to the Christian faith and the evangelization of the world. The First World War and its aftermath changed the emphases of the Federation as social problems, international relations, and the issues of pacifism and war came to the foreground. In 1920, the WSCF founded European Student Relief, a vast program of social service provided to thousands of students (later to be carried on by an independent body called International Student Service).

Turbulent time in Church History
The WSCF has been an international interpreter and mediator for national student Christian movements through decades of changing issues, goals, and events. Detailed reports from the field have been combined with records of theological reflection to provide fascinating reading and valuable "on the ground" documentation of a turbulent time in the world and in Church history.

Martha Smalley, Yale Divinity School Library & Paul Stuehrenberg, Yale Divinity School Library

Series:

Edited by Vladimir Tikhonov and Owen Miller

Children's Leisure Activities in Russia, 1920s-1940s
Building the Lenin Mausoleum in Snow Bricks: Organising Children's Games in Pre-War Soviet Russia

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed an upsurge of interest among Russian intellectuals in play as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon. As the Italian psychologist Giovanni Amonio Colozza, whose treatise was translated into Russian in 1909, put it, play represented 'the free and central expression of those interior things that need to be outwardly expressed'. This view of play as central to childhood development was also influenced by the work of James Sully and G. Stanley Hall, and other members of the 'child study' or 'paidology' movement. The 'mother's diaries' and 'father's diaries' extensively published by Russians in the 1910s and early 1920s regularly noted children's games as part of their record of day-to-day development, and after the Revolution, much work on recording games was also done by the Experimental Stations of Narkompros.
This psychological or anthropological view of play was only one among various approaches, however, and after the Revolution, and particularly from 1925, it began to be vigorously challenged by an instrumental view of play as a central element in peer-group socialisation and, more particularly, in learning about future adult roles. Play was used, as methodological guides for nursery-school teachers indicate, in order to inculcate 'politically correct' attitudes. Baby dolls and fashion dolls were regarded with disapproval, because they reinforced traditional gender stereotypes and, in the second case, frivolity; dolls representing members of 'national' (i.e. ethnic) minority groups were given the stamp of approval, since they could be used to tutor children in internationalism. Children were taught new variants of familiar games, such as constructing the Lenin Mausoleum with snow bricks dyed red, rather than houses or igloos, or playing Co-operative Shop and Collective Farm Market using wooden models and building blocks. Even before the Revolution, efforts to provide children with 'rational leisure' had begun (an example was the children's summer playground run by volunteers on Petrograd Side, St Petersburg, in the 1910s); now, the Pioneer and Komsomol movement devoted huge energy to efforts to 'clean up' children's games in the streets and courtyards of cities, and also among village children. Pioneers themselves were used as a 'revolutionary avant-garde' to propagandise new kinds of game among 'unorganised children': building bird-boxes instead of robbing nests, playing 'Communists' against 'Fascists' instead of 'Cossacks and Robbers', engaging in healthy and beneficial 'active games' instead of taking part in games of chance such as 'heads or tails' or playing cards for money.
The movement for 'socialisation through play' and 'rational leisure' was documented in many hundreds of publications, both in periodicals (for example, Doshkol'noe obrazovanie [Pre-School Education], Prosveshchenie na transporte [Education in Railway Schools], Na puti k novoi shkole [On the Road to the New School], and Pedologiya), and in separate short books and brochures. The selection here, taken from materials held in the Russian State Library and in the Ushinsky Pedagogical Library in Moscow, gives a representative overview of the different trends. Our choice has been carefully considered to include books published in the provinces as well as in Moscow and Leningrad, to place heavily ideologised tracts alongside more liberal materials, and to offer a spread of material covering different age groups, from pre-schoolers to pre-teens. We have concentrated on books that contain material about the actual practices of play, as opposed to schematic recommendations, and on material that is particularly characteristic of the era. The selection runs chronologically to the late 1930s (the Second World War brought a break in attitudes to this subject, as in other areas of child care).
Many of the items included are now extremely rare - the condemnation by state decree of 'pedological perversions' in 1936 led to a purge of pedagogical literature from many libraries, and, as with other kinds of functional literature, the guides were also often used till they wore out. The material that we have gathered offers a unique insight into one of the most important and characteristic areas of socialising the young in early Soviet Russia, and a window into the mentality of the 'first Soviet generations' as well.

Professor Catriona Kelly (Oxford)

Various Authors & Editors

World Council of Churches
Archives of the General Secretaries

Until now, the World Council of Churches (WCC) had six general secretaries: Dr. Willem Adolf Visser ’t Hooft (1948-1966), Eugene Carson Blake (1966-1972), Philip Alford Potter (1972-1984), Emilio Castro (1985-1992), Konrad Raiser (1993-2003), and Samuel Kobia (since 2004).
The General Secretary is elected by the Central Committee for five years. He is the chief executive officer of the WCC. As such he is the head of the staff. He organizes WCC governing body meetings, directs the activities of the Council according to the mandates and policies of the governing bodies and conducts analysis of trends affecting the ecumenical movement. He also provides and initiates reflection on emerging issues in the ecumenical movement and in the world, projects and promotes the image of the ecumenical movement, represents and interprets the Council to member churches, ecumenical partners, secular bodies and authorities. He finally identifies and defines long-range and evolving strategic directions of WCC.

Sections
The archives of the ecumenical movement are housed in the WCC’s Library & Archives, in Geneva. They are divided into many different sections, reflecting the various bodies that were active in the ecumenical scene during the 20th century.
The records of the International Missionary Council, the Programme to Combat Racism and the Dialogue with People of Living Faith – all previously published on microform by IDC Publishers – are examples of such sections.
The present collection makes available on microform another section of the ecumenical archives, dealing with the first four WCC General Secretaries personal archives in the period 1920-1992. The documents in the archives consist of articles, manuscripts, personal notes, speeches and works.

1st WCC General Secretary: Willem A. Visser ’t Hooft (1948-1966)
(*1900 Haarlem, Netherlands; †1985 Geneva, Switzerland) Netherlands Reformed Church/National Protestant Church, Geneva
Visser ’t Hooft was the first general secretary of the WCC, 1938/1948-1966, and from 1968 onward its honorary president. He was active in the student Christian Movement in the Netherlands, became secretary of the World's YMCA in Geneva in 1924, and was the youngest participant in the Stockholm Life and Work conference in 1925. The doctoral dissertation that he presented to the University of Leiden in 1982 was entitled "The Background of the Social Gospel in America". In 1931 Visser 't Hooft became secretary, in 1933 general secretary and in 1936 president of the World Student Christian Federation. He was actively engaged in the preparation of the conferences in Oxford and Edinburgh in 1937, and appointed as general secretary of the WCC in process of formation at the meeting of the provisional committee in Utrecht in 1938. As WCC general secretary he visited many countries around the world making a vast number of personal contacts, lecturing on behalf of the Council and attending meetings. The bibliography of his literary output contains over 1300 titles. He was honoured by several Festschriften, numerous honorary degrees and awards. He published his Memoirs in 1973 and was from 1948 onward the editor of the Ecumenical Review, which was well-planned and of outstanding theological quality.
Paul Abrecht wrote after his death that without Visser 't Hooft "combination of gifts the WCC might never have existed. No other person in the leadership of those days possessed the acumen, imagination, statesmanship experience, daring, energy and languages necessary to bring it into being".
In 1987 the WCC central committee adopted a proposal to set up a "Visser 't Hooft endowment fund for ecumenical leadership development" and commended this endeavour and its success to the churches and the public for the strengthening of the ecumenical movement and its future.

2nd WCC General Secretary: Eugene Carson Blake (1966-1972)
(*1906 St. Louis, Missouri, USA; †1985, Stamford, Connecticut, USA) United Presbyterian Church in the USA
Eugene Carson Blake served as WCC general secretary from 1966-1972. After studying theology at Princeton Theological seminary, Blake became pastor of a large parish in Pasadena, California. In 1951 he was elected stated clerk of the Presbyterian Church in the USA). In a sermon at Grace Cathedral in San Francisco in 1960, he made a proposal for church union of several churches in the USA, which developed into the Consultation on Church Union. He was president of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, 1954-1957, and continued as a member of the general board until 1966. Blake was elected second general secretary of the WCC 1966-1972, while he was earlier member of its central and executives committees, 1954-1961, and chairman of the Division of Inter Church Aid, refugee and World Service, 1961-1966. He was instrumental in increasing Roman Catholic participation in the ecumenical movement, received Paul VI in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva in 1969, and was personally involved in setting up the Program to Combat Racism. He had considerable skills and guided the WCC in a period of expansion and reconstruction.

3rd WCC General Secretary: Philip A. Potter (1972-1984)
(*1921 Roseau, West Indies) Methodist Church
Philip A. Potter, a Methodist pastor, missionary and youth leader from Dominica in the West Indies served as WCC general secretary from 1972-1984. Besides 24 years on the WCC staff, he was a missionary to poor and mostly Creole -speaking people in Haiti, president of the World Student Christian Federation and a staff member of the Methodist Missionary Society in London.
A central committee resolution honouring Potter on his retirement identified some main thrusts the WCC owed to his leadership: "the insistence on the fundamental unity of Christian witness and Christian service which the gospel commands and makes possible, the correlation of faith and action, the inseparable connection between the personal spiritual life of Christian believers and their obedient action in the world".
An eloquent and forceful speaker and leader of Bible studies, Potter received numerous honorary degrees and awards.

4th WCC General Secretary: Emilio Castro (1985-1992)
(*1927, Uruguay) Evangelical Methodist Church of Uruguay
Emilio Castro, a Methodist pastor and theologian from Uruguay was the WCC general secretary from 1985-1992. He had previously served as director of the WCC commission on World Mission and Evangelism from 1973-1983. He studied at Union Theological Seminary, Buenos Aires, 1944-50, and was ordained in the Evangelical Methodist Church of Uruguay in 1948. Under a WCC scholarship, he pursued post-graduate work in Basel in 1953-54 under the guidance of Karl Barth. Returning to Latin America, he was pastor of Methodist churches in La Paz, Bolivia (1954-56, and in Montevideo, Uruguay, 1957-65). His church and ecumenical activities in Latin America have been numerous. Elsewhere, his ecumenical activities have been with the Christian Peace Conference and with the Agency for Christian Literature development. He received a doctoral degree from the University of Lausanne in 1984. His attendance at many conferences has included the WCC assemblies of 1961 and 1968, the Life and Mission Conference of the World Student Christian Federation in Strasbourg, and the 1966 Church and Society conference in Geneva.

Series:

The Creation of Modern Iraq, c. 1914-1921
India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print

Detailed intelligence reports
On November 5, 1914, three months after the outbreak of the First World War in Europe, Britain officially declared war on Germany’s eastern ally, Turkey. On November 22, a British Indian army – Indian Expeditionary Force “D” (IEFD) – occupied Basra, where a local British administration was immediately set up under the leadership of Sir Percy Cox as Chief Political Officer. While the British Indian military forces advanced slowly upriver towards Baghdad, and then remained bogged down in the famous five-month siege at Kut, Cox and a small team of officials set about creating a civilian government which would ultimately be extended to all the former territories of Ottoman Turkish Arabia.
Among those recruited for the work were Arnold Wilson and Reader Bullard, as well as the more well-known travelers and Orientalists of the period, including T.E. Lawrence, Gertrude Bell, and Harry St. John Philby. While political officers such as Bullard and Wilson were sent out to run regional administrations, Bell and her colleagues worked under the auspices of the Arab Bureau’s Eastern Branch at Basra, preparing detailed intelligence reports on local personalities, tribes, and political affiliations. When Baghdad was finally captured in March 1917, Cox – now promoted to the post of Civil Commissioner in Mesopotamia – appointed Gertrude Bell as his “Oriental Secretary”, the key intelligence post in the administration.

New form of government
Mosul, in the north, was not actually taken by the British until November 1918, but by then British officials had collected extensive dossiers of information on the territories they were to be assigned at the post-war San Remo meetings in April 1920. At San Remo, Britain was assigned the Mandate to govern the newly unified region of Iraq. In October of the same year, Sir Percy Cox was appointed as High Commissioner in Iraq and posted to Baghdad to set up a new form of government which would “give effect to the spirit in which His Majesty’s Government regarded their responsibilities” under the Mandate. [“Historical Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British position in the Persian Gulf, 1907-1928”, Committee of Imperial Defence, October 1928, IOR:L/P&S/20/C247A , p. 31.] At the Cairo Conference in March 1921, Faysal bin Husayn was chosen as future king.

Factual material on the area
During the years of gradually expanding British occupation (1914-1921), the former Ottoman territories – “Turkish Arabia” before the war, “Mesopotamia” during the war, and now the modern state of Iraq – were the subject of enormous interest to officials in London. Information gathering was an essential tool of imperial rule, and in Mesopotamia the need for intelligence was intensified by the requirements of war and the military campaign. By 1918, British government files were full of wide-ranging factual material on the area, and after the end of the war this was supplemented by lengthy discussions on the future government of the new state. In August 1921, Faysal bin Husayn was enthroned in Baghdad. The style and details of his administration, however, had already been established in the seven years preceding his accession.

Provenance and archival background
British interests in Turkish Arabia, or Mesopotamia, before the First World War were the administrative responsibility of the Imperial Government of India and its supervisory body, the India Office, in London. In the India Office, the department responsible for the conduct and supervision of relations with areas outside the sub-continent was the Political and Secret Department. Its archives now form part of the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. [For further information on the OIOC collections relating to Iraq and the Gulf, see Penelope Tuson, The Records of the British Residency and Agencies in the Persian Gulf (London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1979), and Sources for Middle East Studies (London: The British Library, 1984).]
Imperial officials posted in Persia, Turkish Arabia, and the Gulf reported, either directly or indirectly, to the Political and Secret Department in London, as well as to the British Government in India. After 1902, the most important of the departmental papers accumulated in London were registered, indexed, and arranged in files according to subject. At the same time, the Political and Secret Department also maintained its own departmental reference library of confidential handbooks for the restricted use of its own officials, as did the Military and other India Office departments. The Political and Secret Department papers have now been catalogued under the OIOC reference L/P&S/.
In 1921, a new Middle East Department of the Colonial Office was set up in London and took over responsibility for British policy and administration in Iraq during the Mandate. At the same time, the India Office ceased to have direct involvement in the day-to-day affairs of the new state.

Organization and contents of files
The Political and Secret subject files consist of the confidential intelligence reports on which the handbooks were based, and of many more reports from officials on the political situation in the region, the development of the economy and infrastructure, oil and water resources, trade, currency, banking, land and river transportation, irrigation, and even antiquities and archaeology. Major policy files describe the background and practicalities of the creation of a political administration, a social and an economic infrastructure, and a future constitution. Officials argued at length about the nature of the constitution and the extent of Arab participation and self-government. [See, for example, Gertrude Bell’s “Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia” (1920), which was published as a British Parliamentary Paper ( IOR:L/P&S/10/752. See microfiche 404-410 (115-121)) and India Office Political Department memoranda on “The future constitution of Mesopotamia” ( IOR:L/P&S/10/757-759. See microfiche 422-433 (133-144)).] They also devoted time and energy to the development of the revenue, judicial, municipal, and education systems. At the same time, both military and civilian experts produced technical geographical and topographical surveys of the entire region, from the boundaries with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the south, to Kurdistan in the north. A typical file, for example, includes political memoranda prepared by officials in London or Baghdad, minutes of international or departmental meetings, intelligence reports from local officials and experts, printed reports, maps, and photographs.

Penelope Tuson, Former Curator of Middle East Archives, Oriental & India Office Collections, British Library

This collection includes the sections:
BII-1: Gazetteers and Handbooks
BII-2: Outbreak of WWI – Situation in Turkish Arania
BII-3: Wartime Military and Civil Administration
BII-4: Wartime Economy – Trade and Communications
BII-5: Post-War Administration and Constitution for the State of Iraq
BII-6: Local Government and Education
BII-7: Kurdistan
BII-8: Iraqi Boundaries
BII-9: Post-War Economic Development
BII-10: The Oil Industry

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-6: Papers of J. van Baal (1934-1964): New Guinea, Lombok/Bali

Early career
Jan van Baal (1909-1992) was a well-known cultural anthropologist who specialized in the study of the peoples of New Guinea. He was born into a strict reformed Protestant family in Scheveningen, the port of The Hague. After studying “indology” (the name then given for the program of study in preparation of becoming a civil administrator in the Netherlands Indies) and obtaining a doctorate at the University of Leiden with a dissertation on the Marind-Anim Papua people, he began his career in the Indies in 1934. He served first as junior controller in Java and Madura before being appointed in 1936 to the post of controller stationed at Merauke in South-New-Guinea, where he was to spend two years. In addition to his administrative duties, which included quelling uprisings, he gathered statistical and ethnographical data on the local population (the Marind of his dissertation) and studied their rituals and religion. In 1938 he was transferred to East Java. He had just commenced a research study of village structure on Lombok when the Japanese invaded in 1942. During the occupation (1942-1945) he was interned in Celebes (Sulawesi) and taught courses in ethnography to his fellow campmates, while working on a carefully concealed manuscript that formed the basis of his 1947 publication Over wegen en drijfveren der religie (On ways and motives of religion). After his release he returned to the Netherlands until posted back to Java in July 1947 arriving the day the “First police action” against the forces of the Republic of Indonesia began (20 July). Subsequently he held the position of assistant-resident in Bali and Lombok, part of the new federal state of East Indonesia, but became disillusioned with the way the local rulers promoted their own interests while neglecting those of the population. He also worked briefly in Medan in Sumatra, where he had contact with the Republicans, whom he thought were better administrators.

Back to New Guinea
With the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949, which he felt came too quickly and irresponsibly under American pressure, he again became increasingly involved in New Guinea affairs. The sovereignty over the western half of that still remote and little-known island had been retained by the Dutch in 1949, but was disputed by the Indonesians. He acted as secretary of the Dutch delegation to the New Guinea/Irian commission to discuss New Guinea’s status with Indonesia in 1950. In 1951 he became the first head of the newly created Kantoor voor Bevolkingszaken (literally Office of Population Affairs, translated at the time as Bureau of Native Affairs), headquartered in Hollandia (now Jayapura), the colonial capital. The bureau’s task was to gather data on all aspects of New Guinea society (its archive is also available through Moran Micropublications). But Van Baal soon relinquished this fascinating work to stand for Parliament for the conservative Protestant Antirevolutionary Party (ARP). Though elected his stay in the Lower House was brief, for the Dutch government convinced him to accept the post of Governor of Netherlands New Guinea in April 1953 for a five-year term.

Governor
Van Baal proved to be a dedicated, hardworking and efficient governor, who authored an important work plan for the development of New Guinea. But he was also forced to spend much time and energy on bureaucratic infighting with the Ministry of Overseas Territories ( Ministerie van Overzeesche Rijksdelen), in particular over his budget. Civil servants at the ministry were still imbued with the classical colonial attitude that New Guinea should not only pay for itself, but also produce benefits for the mother country (the famous “batig saldo”) through, for example, large-scale projects in agriculture and mining. Van Baal, on the other hand, believed in a small-scale approach to agriculture and also that the colony should be led toward a steadily increasing measure of self-rule in keeping with the United Nations charter. Although at times he threatened to resign, Van Baal finished his term of governor as planned in 1958. He then returned to the Netherlands and later that year became professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Utrecht, where he remained until his retirement in 1973. He later published his memoirs of this long career in colonial service in a two-volume work entitled Ontglipt verleden [A past that slipped away](1986-1989).

End of Dutch rule
After Van Baal’s departure the Dutch were only to rule over western New Guinea for a few more years. The Indonesian Republic had always maintained its claim to this territory, which it referred to as Irian Barat (west Irian). Starting in 1960 Indonesian president Sukarno began asserting it more aggressively, even attempting military infiltration from 1961, while at the same time raising the issue several times in the United Nations without being able to obtain a two-thirds majority for the Indonesian position. The Dutch government lacked a concrete plan for independence and first favored uniting western and eastern New Guinea. While the Dutch had made efforts on behalf of economic development and education, it was only in 1961 that a partly-elected New Guinea Council was set up with limited powers. Then the Dutch proposed a plebiscite among the Papuans under international auspices to decide their future status, also without winning the necessary majority in the UN. In the meantime international opinion remained divided on the issue, but the United States, fearing it might “lose” Indonesia to the Soviets, stepped up the pressure on the Dutch. Lacking the will and the means to face a military confrontation with the Indonesians, the Dutch ceded western New Guinea to a temporary UN administration on 1 October 1962. The UN then turned authority over to Indonesia on 1 May 1963 on condition that the population vote on its wishes after five years, a promise only partially fulfilled, according to many, by the still-disputed consultation that took place in 1969 .

The papers
Van Baal’s papers micropublished here concern his career in the colonial civil service from 1934 until 1958. The first part covers his early years in South-New-Guinea, including
• documents concerning the establishment of population registers and dossiers with statistical and ethnographic information on the local population.

The second part of the collection covers the years 1945-1950, especially
• documents of various sorts on the political, economic and social situation on Lombok and Bali.

The third part, by far the most extensive, concerns New Guinea in general from 1945 until the early 1960s. It can be subdivided as follows:
• reports and other documents from the period 1945-1950, including incoming reports on discussion of the New Guinea question at the Round Table Conference, 1949
• discussions in the ministers’ conference of the Netherlands-Indonesian union in early 1950 and in the New Guinea/Irian commission, 1950
• international correspondence 1950-1964, organized by year, conducted in several languages with a great many people, both inside and outside the government, in New Guinea, the Netherlands and other countries concerning a broad range of subjects, both official and unofficial, political as well as scientific
• documents concerning New Guinea as an international question 1950-1961 (especially 1951-1952), among others, reports from international bodies, such as diverse United Nations commissions
• documents concerning the internal administration of New Guinea in the most diverse sense, 1950-1958, including information on political, social, cultural and economic developments, agricultural and infrastructural projects, relations with Catholic and Protestant missions, education, republican sympathizers and Indonesian activities, cooperative organizations and organizations for the development and colonization of New Guinea, the situation of Indo-Europeans, anthropological and scientific reports, and many others.

Sources
J. van Baal, Ontglipt verleden (vol. 1, Franeker: Wever, 1986; vol. 2, Franeker: Van Wijn, 1989)
Reviews in NRC Handelsblad (27 September 1986; 23 September 1989) and De Volksrant (24 September 1986; 16 September 1989).

Series:

Various Authors & Editors

Russian Military Intelligence on Asia: Archives, 1620-1917

The Russian Military Intelligence on Asia: Archives, 1620-1917 collection gathers the holdings of the Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA) in Moscow for nine countries:
• The Far Eastern Threat – Confronting China, Japan, and Korea
• The Eastern Question – Confronting Turkey, Palestine, Arabia, and Syria
• The Great Game – Confronting Persia and Afghanistan

The Far Eastern Threat – Confronting China and Japan
While Imperial Russia never formally went to war with China, tsarist interest in its vast Far Eastern neighbor increased during the 19th century, as the decline of the Qing dynasty offered tempting opportunities for expansion. Furthermore, because of Russia’s long history of informal relations, its citizens were in a singularly favorable position to study regions of China that were entirely inaccessible to other Europeans. The Far Eastern Threat collection comprises broader military, political, economic, ethnographic, and geographical studies, as well as valuable primary documents about the annexation of the Amur and Ussuri regions, the Ili Crisis, the Sino-Russian alliance, and concessions in Manchuria.

The Eastern Question – Confronting Turkey
During the last two centuries of its existence, the Russian Empire clashed with Turkey no less than eight times; one of these conflicts was the disastrous Crimean War. Known to Victorian England as “The Eastern Question,” these confrontations were a major feature of the era’s great power struggle. The Russian general staff gathered an enormous mass of data about its Ottoman adversary, which are grouped in the Eastern Question component of the Russian Military Intelligence on Asia collection. Comprising more than 1,000 separate files, the archive includes classified attaché and diplomatic reports on Turkish politics, British influence, the organization and condition of the Turkish army, the defenses of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles Straits, as well as nationalist revolts in the Balkans and elsewhere. There are also over 500 maps, plans, diagrams, and other illustrations.

The Great Game – Confronting Persia
The 18th and 19th centuries saw Russia go to war with Persia four times. While tsarist ambitions focused largely on the Caucasus, London came to fear grander designs in a rivalry for dominion over Asia that they dubbed “the Great Game.” The Great Game collection includes close to 200 maps. The texts range from surveys of political, economic, and military developments, to Armenian separatism and Russian military assistance to the Persian army.

Classified
Because the collection was classified as either “Secret” or “For Internal Use Only,” and was published in only a small print run, there are no complete collections available abroad, and even the holdings of Russia’s leading libraries are often wanting. The Russian Military Intelligence on Asia collection therefore makes available for the first time this valuable resource to the scholarly community worldwide.

Also see Russian Military Intelligence on Asia: Secret Prints.

This collection includes the sections:
A Threat from the Far East: China
A Threat from the Far East: Japan
A Threat from the Far East: Korea
The Eastern Question: Arabia and Syria
The Eastern Question: Palestine
The Eastern Question: Turkey
The Great Game in Central Asia: Persia (Iran)
The Great Game in Central Asia: Afghanistan