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Dutch Pamphlets, 1486-1853: The Knuttel Collection

The thousands of pamphlets presented here constitute an essential source for understanding these tumultuous periods of history. They range from political apologies and manifestoes to tracts for and against predestination in theology. Along the way, battles, sieges, treaties, riots, and political assassinations form the subject matter of many pamphlets. Domestic issues of all sorts are commented upon or caricatured, sometimes in rhyme, and political events outside the Lowlands are also chronicled. Tracts on astrological predictions and the appearance of comets permit the study of popular culture and mentalities. In short, historians of all sorts can draw on these texts for their research. The majority of the pamphlets are in Dutch but there are also texts in French, German, Latin, and English. The IDC collection incorporates all pamphlets cataloged by W.P.C. Knuttel in the last decades of the 19th and the early decades of the 20th century.

Part I: 1486-1648
The period from 1486 to 1648 was of crucial significance for the history of the Low Countries and the present Dutch State. This period witnessed first the consolidation of 17 quite disparate provinces under the hegemony of the Habsburg Monarchy. Later the Revolt of the Netherlands against the Spanish Habsburg king Philip II led in the course of 80 years of warfare to the establishment of the Republic of the United Provinces, the forerunner of the modern Netherlands State. The southern Netherlands - now the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg - continued under Habsburg dominion. Inextricably bound up with these developments on the political level, was the history of the Reformation in the Low Countries. The successful implantation of Calvinist Protestantism in the North and the triumph of Counter-Reformation Catholicism in the South were recognized in 1648 in the Treaty of Munster, which ended the Eighty Years War.

Part II: 1649-1750
After the official recognition of its independence in 1648 the Dutch Republic quickly established itself as an economic, political and military power in Europe and a formidable contender in the struggle for trade and glory overseas. The second half of the 17th century was a golden age for the Dutch. Economic rivalry with England led to several naval wars, but in 1689, the Dutch stadhouder William of Orange was invited to assume the throne of that country after the Glorious Revolution had driven James II from power. In the disaster year of 1672 French and other armies penetrated deep into Dutch territory, exacerbating the internal conflict between the States and Orangist parties that led to the murder of the Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his brother by a mob in The Hague. The Republic survived this ordeal, recovered and prospered. The 18th century brought a relative eclipse of the Republic on the European stage and the beginnings of the reforming Patriotsmovement at home.

Part III: 1751-1853
Dutch pamphlet-writing in the second half of the eighteenth century was dominated on the home front by the struggle between the conservative Orange ‘party’ and the reformist ‘patriots’, a conflict which culminated in near revolution in 1787, and by the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-84) between the Dutch Republic and Great Britain. Meanwhile, milestones of international history such as the American War of Independence and the French Revolution did not, of course, pass unnoticed. The turn of the century witnessed the transformation of the worn-out Dutch Republic into a modern state through the French invasion of 1795, the formation of a semi-independent Batavian Republic and Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the annexation by France and finally the creation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as we know it today, under the restored House of Orange in 1813- 1815. The Belgian insurrection of 1830 and the political reforms of 1848 were the principle events of the next forty years to form the basis for discussion, while many pamphlets were devoted to subjects such as the colonies and slavery, the introduction of railway transport, the discovery of smallpox vaccine and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy.

Language note
Texts primarily in Dutch; some in French, German, and Latin.

Bibliographical note
Knuttel, W.P.C. Catalogus van de Pamflettenverzameling (9 vols.)

Provenance
Royal Library, The Hague
Koran Printing in the West, 1537-1857
Early Printed Korans
Koran Printing in the West, 1537-1857

The first printed Koran
The Venetian printer Alessandro Paganini produced the first Arabic Koran in 1537/38. For a long time it was thought to be lost, and the rumor was that the Pope had the complete print run burned. Certain literary sources, however, have revealed that at least two scholars owned copies of this Koran and quoted from it or explicitly mentioned the Arabic printing type created for it. One of these copies has since been found and is now for the first time accessible through this microfiche collection. The Paganini edition is exceptional, as it was probably intended not for European scholars but for export to the Ottoman Empire. The abundant errors and poor appearance of the type, however, ruined all prospects of success for this Koran edition. Presumably, the copies published were confiscated and destroyed by the Ottomans. While this Koran remains an impressive symbol of the boldness of Venetian book printers, it also demonstrates that conditions were still inadequate for producing a reliable scholarly text and typography. That stage would not be reached for over a century.

Other European Korans
The heyday of Biblical scholarship following the Reformation, at both Protestant and Catholic faculties, led to considerable progress in Oriental philology. Combined with the improvements in Oriental typography, especially at centers such as Leiden and Rome, the conditions were met for publication of the first two authoritative Occidental Koran editions, which appeared in quick succession in the 17th century.
The Hamburg Koran edition produced by Abraham Hinckelmann in 1694, based on his substantial collection of Arabic manuscripts, was intended purely as a basic philological study, as is apparent from the absence of a translation. On the other hand, the edition published by Ludovico Marracci in 1698 primarily served theological purposes. Marracci included both an extremely accurate Latin translation (which was published separately in a smaller edition in Leipzig in 1721) and excerpts from Arabic commentaries in the original text (as well as translations of these excerpts). He concluded by writing an extensive theological refutation.
The edition that appeared barely a century later, in 1787 in St. Petersburg, was published for political purposes. As a gesture of religious tolerance Tsarina Catherine II aimed to grant the new Muslim citizens of Turkish descent easy access to their holy book. This edition, later reprinted in several versions in Kazan, was the work of Muslim scholars, who added textual readings of the Koran text and excerpts from commentaries. It achieved a limited impact. Very few copies reached Western Europe, and in the main Islamic countries in the Near East they did not prevail over the lithographic editions featuring fine calligraphy, which appeared in Iran, the Ottoman Empire and India from the early 19th century onward. These major Oriental editions will be included in the a subsequent installment.
The edition published by the Orientalist Gustav Flügel in Leipzig in 1834 permanently influenced the course of Koran studies in the West. Until the publication of the 'official' Cairo Koran edition in 1923, Flügel's text was the foundation of modern Koran research and the basis for several new translations into European languages. However, Flügel's edition did have its shortcomings, primarily denounced by Islamic scholars. An example of this is the verse numbering, which deviated from traditional Islamic numbering in many respects.

The oldest Koran translation
The oldest Koran translation preserved dates from 1143. At the request of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, it was prepared in Toledo by the polyglot British scholar Robert of Ketton (Robertus Ketenensius, mistakenly referred to as Robertus Retenensis or Robert of Chester). He was assisted by a native Arabic speaker. Several manuscripts reflect the significance of this Latin translation for Western involvement with Islam. Exactly four centuries after the translation originated, it was prepared for publication by the Zurich theologian Theodor Bibliander. In 1543, after fierce debate and mediation on the part of Martin Luther, it was issued by the famous Basle publishing house of Johannes Oporinus. The huge demand for this work led to a second printing seven years later.

Vernacular translations
The impact of this old Toledan Koran translation lasted half a millennium. It provided the source for the first translations into Italian, German and Dutch. In 1647 the first vernacular translation directly from the Arabic appeared in Paris. It was a French translation by the Orientalist and diplomat André du Ryer. Throughout the Enlightenment, this was the leading and most popular translation, published in dozens of different editions in various publishing centers in France, the Netherlands and Germany. Our collection features only the most important editions. Du Ryer based his translation on the interpretation of the two most popular Sunni commentaries. Even the essentially superior English translation by George Sale (London 1734), which continues to be praised for its linguistic style, did not replace du Ryer's translation overnight. The improvement of Sale's edition compared to du Ryer's is its lengthy 'Preliminary Discourse', offering readers detailed and reliable information about pre-Islamic Arabia and the origins of Islam.
The first German translation based on the original appeared in 1772. By 1850, three additional German translations had appeared, all deeply inferior to the English translation. On the other hand, the two new French translations by Etienne Savary (1783) and Kazimirski (1840) were a significant improvement over du Ryer's work in terms of textual interpretation.

Selections
Thus far, we have mentioned only complete editions or translations. Yet the microfiche collection also incorporates some selections (mostly bilingual) of scholarly significance, as the following two examples illustrate. The first is the bilingual edition of the Joseph Surah (Surah 12) by the leading Dutch Orientalist Thomas Erpenius, published in Leiden in 1617. In addition to the Arabic text in flawless Erpenian type, Erpenius provided an accurate and literal Latin translation. As a contrast, he also included the deeply unsatisfactory Toledan translation from Bibliander's Koran edition. Erpenius' edition was intended as exercise material for the Arabic grammar he had published earlier.
In 1701 the Orientalist Andreas Acoluthus from Breslau published a specimen for a polyglot Koran, in which he printed the text of Surah 1 in Arabic, Persian and Turkish with the respective Latin paraphrases, followed by an extensive Latin treatise on the Koran. Acoluthus was far ahead of his day with this project. Unfortunately, his plan never fully materialized.
Like the edition published by Erpenius, most of the other bilingual partial editions were intended as exercise material for people learning Arabic. There editions reflect the uneven progress in Arabic typography: the awkward woodcut type by Johannes Zechendorff (Zwickau 1646) contrasts sharply with the near-perfect types of the various Leiden editions of Erpenius (1617) and Nissel (1655). All the partial editions selected here attest to the European typographical history of the Arabic.

This collection
This collection contains all Arabic Koran editions printed in Europe before 1850, as well as all complete translations directly from the Arabic (until about 1860). Among the secondary translations, only those into German and Dutch are offered completely. Other translations will follow in the third installment, which will also feature several variants of the first published Latin translation of the Koran from 1543. Of the partial editions, only the typographically or academically most interesting ones are presented here.

Prof. dr. Hartmut Bobzin, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

This collection includes the sections:
Early Western Korans – Part 1
Early Western Korans – Part 2
• Number of titles: 98
• Languages used: Hungarian and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: National Széchényi Library, Budapest

The texts of Hungarian reformers, whether Lutheran, Calvinist, Catholic, or Anti-Trinitarian have hitherto been virtually unknown to the scholarly community. For the first time, this collection of primary sources offers a comprehensive survey of the original writings of the Hungarian reformers. It includes texts from the period of the first stirrings of reform in the 1540s through to works written for the established churches of the region during the 1650s. It is an invaluable resource for historians interested in the Lutheran Reformation, the development of international Calvinism, the Catholic Reformation, and the emergence of Anti-Trinitarianism.
Sources on the Development of the Reformation in Heidelberg in the 16th Century
• Number of titles: 200
• Languages used: mainly Latin and German, also English, Dutch and French
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München; Bodleian Library, Oxford; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Zentralbibliothek Zürich

This collection has been gathered for the purpose of illuminating the intellectual and religious developments during the reigns of Ottheinrich (1556-1559) and Frederick III (1559-1576). Its primary goal is to present the complete works of the major Heidelberg figures (Bouquin, Erastus, Olevianus, Ursinus, Zanchi) and a major sampling of the works of many secondary figures. Secondarily, its aim is to illuminate the theological development of the Palatinate including the origins and reception of the Heidelberg Catechism. Here the collection ventures outside the strict bounds of Reformed Protestantism to include attacks on the Palatine confession by Lutheran scholars.
The Sixteenth Century Pamphlets Online / Flugschriften Online series contains some 11,000 German and Latin pamphlets printed in the Holy Roman Empire.

The pamphlets from 1501-1530 are primarily concerned with the early Reformation movement and its propaganda, the Peasants' War, the threat presented by the Turks, and the various conflicts among the Western European countries.
The pamphlets from 1531-1600 deal with a broad spectrum of themes, such as the Turkish wars, the revolt of the Netherlands, the persecution of French protestants, the status of Calvinists and Zwinglians in the Holy Roman Empire, the Council of Trent, the Anabaptist Kingdom of Münster, the Schmalkaldic War and the Interim, propaganda against the papacy and the Jesuits, intra-Protestant theological quarrels, the building of confessional networks, witch-hunting, and anti-Jewish polemics.

• Number of titles: 529
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: Johannes a Lasco Library at Emden; Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen; Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Bibliotheek Theologische Universiteit Kampen; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Universiteitsbibliotheek Maastricht; Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht

In the sixteenth century, the seaport town of Emden at the heart of East Friesland grew into the “mother church” of Dutch Calvinism, which was the driving force behind the Dutch Revolt. Concurrently, in neighbouring North-Western Germany the so-called “second Reformation” took place, that is, the calvinizing of Lutheran lands. From 1555 onwards, the Lutheran cities of Bremen and Hamburg became the scenes of sacramentarian controversies which had an impact far beyond their borders. They marked a critical phase in the transition of German left wing Lutherans to (a form of) Calvinism and in the consolidation processes of the Lutheran and Reformed confessions in North-Western Europe. This collection has a strong focus on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. It presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.
Editor: Charles Gunnoe
Reformation in Heidelberg

Part I
This collection has been gathered for the purpose of illuminating the intellectual and religious developments during the reigns of Ottheinrich (1556-1559) and Frederick III (1559-1576). Its primary goal is to present the complete works of the major Heidelberg figures (Bouquin, Erastus, Olevianus, Ursinus, Zanchi) and a major sampling of the works of many secondary figures. Secondarily, its aim is to illuminate the theological development of the Palatinate including the origins and reception of the Heidelberg Catechism. Here the collection ventures outside the strict bounds of Reformed Protestantism to include attacks on the Palatine confession by Lutheran scholars.

• Number of titles: 99
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

Location of originals: Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel

Part II
This collection completes the series The Reformation in Heidelberg. It comprises a wide array of rare primary sources gathered from libraries in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It expands the number of works available by such theologians as Pierre Boquin and Zacharias Ursinus, and features more works by the prominent medical humanists, Thomas Erastus and Johannes Lange.

• Number of titles: 78 primary titles, 23 secondary titles
• Languages used: mainly Latin and German, also English, Dutch and French
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

Location of originals: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München; Bodleian Library, Oxford; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Zentralbibliothek Zürich
Heinrich Bullinger: Secondary Sources, 1543-1940

Catalog records
In remembrance of the 500th birthday in 2004, IDC has newly cataloged its collection of secondary sources on Heinrich Bullinger, using internationally accepted bibliographic standards that ensure easy and multi-level access. The records that accompany this collection all contain at least one subject or genre heading, such as "Predestination" or "Funeral sermons". If applicable, an entry for a translator or co-author was created as well.
A MARC21 record is available for this collection. These records may be used without any restrictions in your library's online catalog. The titles in this collection have previously been published by IDC in the first part of its series on Reformed Protestantism: Switzerland and Geneva.
Reformed Protestantism
5. East Friesland and North-Western Germany

Part I
In the 16th century, the seaport town of Emden at the heart of East Friesland grew into the “mother church” of Dutch Calvinism, which was the driving force behind the Dutch Revolt. Concurrently, in neighbouring North-Western Germany the so-called “second Reformation” took place, that is, the calvinizing of Lutheran lands. From 1555 onwards, the Lutheran cities of Bremen and Hamburg became the scenes of sacramentarian controversies which had an impact far beyond their borders. They marked a critical phase in the transition of German left wing Lutherans to (a form of) Calvinism and in the consolidation processes of the Lutheran and Reformed confessions in North-Western Europe.

• Number of titles: 144
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
• Purchase option: Outright purchase

Location of originals: Johannes a Lasco Library at Emden

Part II
The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

• Number of titles: 385
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

Location of originals: Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen; Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden; Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Bibliotheek Theologische Universiteit Kampen; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Universiteitsbibliotheek Maastricht; Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht

This collection is also included in the Reformed Protestantism Sources of the 16th and 17th Centuries collection.