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Taiwan's Opposition Magazines
Tangwai ("outside-the-party") opposition magazines in Taiwan

During the period between 1975 and 1986, a number of magazines were published in Taiwan, collectively known as Tangwai ("outside-the-party") magazines, to indicate that they originated outside the ruling Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang (KMT) party. The magazines have in common that they voiced opposition against the single-party rule of the KMT and advocated democracy and respect for human rights on the island, which had been under martial law since 1949.

16 Tangwai magazines collected by the Reverend Dr. Edward Kelly (Columbian Fathers), supported by Dr. Gerrit van der Wees and his wife Mei-chin of Taiwan Communiqué, Dr. James D. Seymour of Columbia University, and Dr. Fu-mei Chang Chen of the Hoover Institution (Stanford University).
Published from Tokyo under Japanese editorship before, during, and after WWII (1932-1970), Contemporary Japan is now seen as a beacon of rationality, especially during the ‘devil’s decade’ of the 1930s. While consistently presenting the Japanese case, Contemporary Japan spoke from the shrinking middle ground of the public sphere. Run by the semi-official Foreign Affairs Association of Japan, Contemporary Japan published informed, critical, long-form journalism by leading Japanese and Western commentators on East Asia. Disillusioned Pan-Asianists compete with anti-Western rhetoric on the road to war against China. Post-war, new voices bemoan the 'reverse course' of 1947-1952. This lively Primary Source offers a window into Japan’s most rational and yet most engaged debates of the day. Contemporary Japan ceased publication in 1970 and Brill has secured the entire run from Vol.1 1932 to Vol. 29, 1970, (with considerable gaps from 1954 - 1970, see full list of issues) but limits this first series to the period 1932-1954.

Note: virtually complete for the important years 1932 - 1954 (lacking two volumes: volume 9, no. 3 (1941) and volume 12, no. 1 (1943). Not complete for the years up to 1970. Should currently missing volumes emerge, these will be included at no extra cost to purchasers.
Printed on the abandoned presses of the South China Morning Post, The Hongkong News offers scholars the undiluted voice and mindset of the Japanese administration of Occupied Hongkong. This significant Japanese Occupation holding of The Hongkong News started publication on 31st December 1941, six days after the Christmas Day surrender of the British Crown Colony, and lasted until August 17, 1945, the day that the Shōwa Emperor’s Rescript ordered Japanese forces to surrender to the Allies. The Hongkong News traces Japan’s progress from the Colony's Imperial overlord to abject surrender, through large-scale internment and assurances of certain victory. In essence, 'A close, unvarnished, daily view of the recolonizing mind-set of the new masters of East Asia'. • Japan's perspective on East Asian and world news published from Occupied Hongkong (1941 - 1945)
• The complete Occupied Hongkong holding, December 31 1941 - 17 August 1945
• English-language
• 5000+ pages
• high-quality originals
• full-text-searchable
• not available elsewhere in full-text searchable format – exclusive to Brill
• holdings of the School of African and Asian Studies (SOAS), University of London

This collection begins with volume 30 of The Hongkong News. The first 29 volumes of The Hongkong News in all probability do not exist anymore, or never even existed in the first place. Like other newspapers in other Asian regions, The Hongkong News first functioned as a 'shell publication' installed in readiness for the actual imminent Japanese occupation, in September 1941.
The Daily Worker Online contains 23,064 pages, from 1922 until 1966, of The Daily Worker, the official mouthpiece of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) between 1924 and 1958, and The Worker.

The Daily Worker was the official mouthpiece of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) between 1924 and 1958. While performing this function, the newspaper represented nevertheless much more than just a tool of political propaganda. Originally, its articles and campaigns were intended to raise working-class awareness in the US and to promote the tenets of socialism there. However, gradually, The Daily Worker started to appeal to a broader audience, not just rank-and-file Communists. Its main target became the victims of the Great Depression, the masses of the unemployed, the dispossessed, and the marginalized minorities packing American metropolises. Its reports covered a wide range of subjects, from policy reforms to labor strikes, from civil rights to housing and urban planning, from foreign policy to sports, literature, and general culture.

Given the breadth of the topics covered by The Daily Worker and the fact that it navigated some of the most transformative years of American democracy and society, including the Progressive Era, the New Deal, WWII, and the Cold War, this newspaper constitutes an excellent resource for the reconstruction and analysis of both US domestic changes and varied foreign entanglements in the first half of the twentieth century. In fact, The Daily Worker was part and parcel of the wider American public debate, not just one of its many radical voices. For many years, its articles reflected the so-called Popular Front culture and spoke to a growing, complex, and multifaceted American left. To do so in an effective way, the newspaper relied on some of the most prominent artists and intellectuals of the era, such as Woody Guthrie, Martha Graham, Lester Rodney, Mike Gold, and many others. As a result, some of The Daily Worker’s campaigns rapidly broke out of the radical realm and entered mainstream public debate. Instances of this, for example, were when the newspaper promoted racial desegregation in professional American sports, when its editors advocated for minimum wages and fair employment conditions, and when its articles contributed to popularizing the war alliance with the USSR.

Even so, The Daily Worker remained largely aligned with a communist perspective on and interpretation of both domestic and international affairs. This is the principal reason, as soon as the Cold War began and the cooperative spirit of the Popular Front disappeared, the paper took a much more orthodox turn, which put it on a collision course with both the emergence of a Cold War consensus among American liberals and, most importantly, with the staunch anti-communism that characterized 1950s America. From that moment onward, the newspaper started to be generally perceived as a destabilizing threat to American democracy. The FBI increased its surveillance of the newspaper’s editors, subscription figures dropped, and communist voices were stigmatized and marginalized. These factors all contributed to the closure of The Daily Worker at the beginning of 1958. After a brief suspension of activities, the CPUSA published a weekend paper called The Worker from 1958 to 1968.

Substantial portions of The Daily Worker Online have been digitized in cooperation with the International Institute of Social History. For a complete list of contents, please see below under the "Downloads" tab.

Robert J. Alexander Papers
An invaluable source for modern Latin America's political and labor history

Diversity of voices
This unique collection captures the opinions and ideas of an immense diversity of voices from the top to the bottom of the countries he visited. Interviews were conducted with men and women from every country and territory in the Americas, including the English-speaking Caribbean, with well over a thousand interviews each for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and Venezuela. Those interviewed include the rich and well born, hundreds of professionals - including lawyers, judges, and economists - as well as a wide sampling of U.S. embassy officials, disgruntled U.S. expatriates, and U.S. academics. Yet Alexander was particularly concerned to document the views of the mass of the population, such as workers and peasants, while making room for opinionated taxi drivers and even shoeshine boys. Women constitute a respectable minority of the total interview pool.

Crossing ideological divides
As a pro-labor anti-Communist, Professor Alexander cultivated friendships with many of the region's most prominent politicians and government officials. He was an active collaborator with Jay Lovestone - the leading Cold War operative of the U.S. labor movement - and worked closely with Latin American political personalities of the "Democratic Left," such as Haya de la Torre, Romulo Betancourt, and Victor Paz Estenssoro. Whether despite or precisely because of his political militancy, Alexander actively crossed ideological divides to interview even those active in organizations and movements he bitterly opposed, such as Communists. In many cases, follow-up interviews during subsequent visits serve to document the shifting positions of these individuals within evolving national histories.

Revealing observations
The interview notes are organized by country and group, and may include: politicians (by party); businessmen, bankers, agriculturalists, and employers; trade unionists (by geographic area and/or political affiliation); government officials, police and military personnel; students, intellectuals, publishers, teachers, and religious figures; and foreign observers. All interviews are typed in English. Each begins with a full identification of the interviewee and includes the time and place of the interaction. The interviews may be as short as a few sentences or as long as ten single-spaced pages. The observations of those interviewed can be remarkably frank, often surprisingly revealing, and at times humorous as they explain their society to this knowledgeable and inquisitive foreigner.

Politics, economics, and labor relations of Latin America
The Alexander interview collection, long known to a handful of specialists, is now made available by IDC Publishers. Undergraduates, fledgling graduate students, and established scholars will benefit from this comprehensive multinational resource in English. It offers an invaluable documentary source for modern Latin America's tumultuous political and labor history, U.S. Cold War conflicts with the region, and the challenges of economic development. In its temporal sweep, the collection covers the populist heyday of the 1940s through the early 1960s, as well as the succeeding decades of military dictatorship and popular resistance. In the Series “Archival Report”, John D. French, Director, Center for Latin American & Caribbean Studies at Duke University has described the nature and significance of this collection in Hispanic American Historical Review 84/2 (May 2004), pp. 315-326.
The Huguenots

As in many parts of Europe, the convulsions stirred by Martin Luther evoked a lively response in France. The rapid condemnation of Luther's heretical propositions by the Paris Faculty of Theology, the Sorbonne, ensured that the spread of evangelical doctrines would follow an altogether more tortured path. The first evangelical texts available in French were mostly translations from German or Latin of works by the major German reformers, and this continued to be a strong strand of evangelical publishing through to the middle of the century, when native writers began to make their voices heard. At first French authors ventured only a very tentative avowal of evangelical principles. Many of these cautious reformist works emanated from the Court circle associated with Marguerite de Navarre, sister of King François I, and they envisaged no fundamental break with the established church.

An entirely new situation arose when French writers moved in the mid 1530s to a more outspoken attack on Catholicism. The seminal text of this phase of the movement was the famous placard of 1535, though this was part of a larger literature that included a number of short, excoriating attacks on Catholic belief and practice. The scandal that followed the posting of the placard brought an end to the era of polite evangelism. Many leading reformers fled abroad; those that remained did so in risk of their lives.
The emergence of Geneva as a centre of the exile movement gave shape to a previously amorphous and disparate movement. Throughout the 1540s and 1550s Jean Calvin, and his collaborators Pierre Viret and Guillaume Farel, were the dominant voices in French evangelism. Their writings made of Geneva a major publishing centre, and established an enduring relationship between the Swiss city and the subsequently emerging French church.
The first avowedly Calvinist, or Reformed churches in France were established in 1554-1555. At first the influence of Geneva was overwhelming. Genevan educated ministers steered the church towards a theology and organisational structure closely modelled on that of Calvin's church. But as the Huguenot movement entered its period of most rapid expansion, after 1559, this dominance was gradually eroded. French Calvinism found its own voice: more assertive, more triumphalist, abandoning Calvin's emphasis on patience in the face of persecution. This new mood is reflected in this collection in a large number of anonymous tracts, scabrous, rumbustious attacks on the old clergy, joyous in celebration of Protestant victories as confrontation turned to warfare in 1562.
The end of the first war (1563) arrested the momentum of the Huguenot movement. The churches ceased their apparently inexorable growth, that had seen over 1000 churches established in less than five years, and the conversion of up to half of the nobility. Henceforth the Huguenot churches would seek equilibrium and doctrinal stability in a context of declining political influence and gradually eroding membership, even before the massacre of St Bartholomew's Day in 1572 confronted the church with its most serious crisis. The writings of the church's leaders during these years fell broadly into three categories: attempts to stabilise the church organisation, defending the Genevan model against persistent attacks from exponents of different forms of church governance; defences of the theology of the church against a resurgent Catholicism; and admonitions to penitence and resolution in times of suffering. This last strand became even more urgent after the massacre of 1572, which decimated the leadership of the movement and brought the previously powerful churches in northern France to the verge of collapse.
Through all of these events the influence of Genevan authors, particularly Calvin and Theodore de Bèze, remained strong, but a cadre of native French writers was finally beginning to emerge, among them Antoine de la Roche Chandieu, Jean de l'Espine and Philippes du Plessis Mornay. These three gifted authors offered an eclectic mixture of theology, consolation literature and political and religious polemic. Du Plessis Mornay also functioned, through his connections to Henri de Navarre, as a link to the political and diplomatic struggle. It was this connection, rather than the more famous resistance theory of the so-called monarchomach authors, that offered the way forward for the movement, and Huguenot morale was greatly enhanced by the emergence of Navarre first as heir (1584) and then, in 1589, as King. The final phase of the conflict saw the resolution of this relationship following Henry's inevitable conversion to Catholicism in 1594, with the negotiations leading to the Edict of Nantes in 1598 which brought an end to the military conflict. These political events also brought a renewed vitality and urgency to the polemical debate. While the Edict did bring Huguenots the prospect of limited security as a privileged minority, it also brought home the final recognition that Protestantism had failed in its attempt at the conversion of France, which had seemed a real possibility in the heady days of the early 1560s. Huguenot authors confronted the difficulties of co-existence, and the inevitable dangers that others would follow the King out of the Church, in a new flurry of powerful original writings.

This collection offers a comprehensive survey of the original writings of the French Huguenot authors, from the first stirrings of radical dissent in the 1530s through to the end of the century. The selection privileges first and foremost original writings of authors writing within France and for an exclusively French audience. Thus whereas Calvin's Genevan writings are not included, the tracts penned by Theodore de Bèze as part of the polemic exchange during the Colloquy of Poissy (1561) do appear here. A further strength of the collection is the anonymous works that set the tone as the Huguenot movement emerged as an autonomous force during the early part of the 1560s. While these works have much in common with the visceral anti-Catholic polemic of the first evangelical generation, they also make extensive use of verse, reflecting the pervasive influence of the metrical psalms on the emerging movement. The collection does not, however, include purely political manifestos, such as those issued by the Duc de Condé to justify the military conflict in 1562; the same distinction governs the limitation of the works of du Plessis Mornay included to his religious writings, rather than the purely political manifestos he wrote on behalf of Henri de Navarre. All told the writings collected here reveal an intellectually vibrant movement, meeting unprecedented challenges and later hardship with that mixture of confidence, aggression, and resolution in the face of adversity that characterises Calvinist churches of this era throughout Europe.

Andrew Pettegree, University of St Andrews

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of the State Commission for Slave Emancipation in the Netherlands Colonies, 1853-1856
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Although slavery had been abolished in the British colonies as early as 1833, it persisted in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies and particularly their West Indies colonies of Surinam and the Antilles, which were plantation economies. No serious voices were raised for emancipation in either government circles or public opinion until the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the United States in 1852. Questions in the Dutch Parliament concerning the colonial budget for 1854 led the government to appoint a State Commission in November 1853 to investigate the situation of the slave population in the colonies and propose appropriate measures. Former minister of the Colonies and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies, J.C. Baud, was named chairman and the members were drawn from the colonial civil service, parliament itself and representatives of commercial interests involved in slavery, including plantation owners.
The commission gathered material, heard witnesses and eventually produced two reports in September 1855 (on Surinam) and July 1856 (on the West Indies islands and West Africa, the Gold Coast, then still a Dutch colony) after which it was disbanded. The legislation the commission proposed remained, however, without immediate effect and the government and parliament would continue to wrestle with the question of slave emancipation until slavery was finally abolished on 1 July 1863.

The archive
The commission’s archive contains minutes of its meetings, correspondence, documentation assembled on the condition of the slaves in the various colonies, memoranda and interim reports by members and non-members. It has now been microfilmed by Moran Micropublications in cooperation with the National Archives of the Netherlands. The micropublication includes the two reports and their appendices, which were printed for parliament but never published, as well as a memorandum against the reports written on behalf of the slave owners of St. Martin in the West Indies.
Translations of the Peking Gazette Online is a comprehensive database of approximately 8,500 pages of English-language renderings of official edicts and memorials from the Qing dynasty that cover China’s long nineteenth century from the Macartney Mission in 1793 to the abdication of the last emperor in 1912. As the mouthpiece of the government, the Peking Gazette is the authoritative source for information about the Manchu state and its Han subjects as they collectively grappled with imperial decline, re-engaged with the wider world, and began mapping the path to China’s contemporary rise.
The Peking Gazette was a unique publication that allows contemporary readers to explore the contours, boundaries, and geographies of modern Chinese history. Contained within its pages are the voices of Manchu emperors, Han officials, gentry leaders, and peasant spokesmen as they discussed and debated the most important political, social, and cultural movements, trends, and events of their day. As such, the Gazette helps us understand the policies and attitudes of the emperors, the ideas and perspectives of the officials, and the mentality and worldviews of several hundred million Han, Mongol, Manchu, Muslim, and Tibetan subjects of the Great Qing Empire.
The dozens of British scholars, missionaries, and consular officials who created this treasure trove of translated Qing documents did so for variety of different reasons. Robert Morrison (1782-1834), the first Protestant missionary to China, honed his classical Chinese by translating the Gazette in preparation for his rendering of the Bible; Sir John Francis Davis (1795-1890), the future governor of Hong Kong, translated the Gazette for the East India Company in Canton during the height of the opium trade; the missionaries Walter Henry Medhurst and William C. Milne, by contrast, sought to understand the Christian-inspired Taiping Civil War (1851-64) by studying and translating the Gazette; the majority of the translators, however, served on the staff of the British consulate in Beijing and followed the lead of Sir Thomas Francis Wade (1818-1895), who decoded the Gazette as a form of intelligence gathering for the British government and published them for the global reading public. However, nineteenth century British scholars, missionaries, and officials did not translate the entirety of the gazette into English.
Culled from a variety of publications, including the Indo-Chinese Gleaner, the Canton Register, the Chinese Repository, and the North China Herald, this full-text searchable database is the largest, most comprehensive collection of English translations of the Peking Gazette in the world. It contains vital information on a wide range of topics, including the Opium War and other military conflicts between China and the West, the Taiping Rebellion and other peasant insurrections, the Self-Strengthening Movement and other Qing reform efforts, and thousands upon thousands of official documents that contain information about the mundane details of everyday life in nineteenth-century China and thrilling accounts of unprecedented events in late imperial times. There is no better source for readers who want to understand the interplay of complex political themes, social movements, and cultural ideas in late imperial China.
This database has been compiled by Dr. Lane J. Harris, Furman University. Dr. Harris would like to thank the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for permission to reproduce the translations by John Francis Davis; the British Library for permission to include portions of their copy of The Cycle: A Political and Literary Review; and the Center for Research Libraries for their assistance in acquiring microfilm versions of the North China Herald, the Canton Register, and the China Mail.
As a special feature of this database, it is accompanied by a primary sourcebook, available through separate purchase, entitled The Peking Gazette: A Reader in Nineteenth-Century Chinese History by Dr. Harris. The reader contains scholarly introductions to thematic chapters organized around the most important events and themes in modern Chinese history for use in undergraduate and graduate classes.

Various Authors & Editors

Richard Wagner

The bibliography on Richard Wagner is huge. He has stirred passions, love, and hatred in equal measure - sometimes (as in the case of Friedrich Nietzsche) within the same breast. It is a popular fact, especially among trivia fanatics, that more has been written about this composer than about almost any other human being except Jesus Christ. Wagner, never the most modest of men, would have been delighted (though he would probably have reckoned it as his due). The literature on Wagner really began at about the same time as his own literary output blossomed, namely after his flight from Dresden in the wake of the failed uprising against the King of Saxony.
His most important early apologist was his friend Franz Liszt, whose Lohengrin et Tannhäuser appeared in 1851. The literature on him swelled as his theories attracted more and more adherents and opponents, and has never ceased to grow. And yet, although the Wagner bibliography of his later years and of the years immediately after his death includes some of the most important writings on his life and work, many of these writings have remained difficult - and in some cases, well-nigh impossible - to obtain.

European Wagner literature
This microfiche edition presents a broad cross-section of the Wagner literature of the nineteenth century as held by the Zentralbibliothek Zürich, which possesses one of the world's finest collections of Wagneriana. The titles reproduced here cover the whole spectrum of European Wagner literature, from two of the earliest books on the composer, Liszt's Lohengrin et Tannhäuser and Die Wagnerfrage of 1854 by Liszt's friend Joachim Raff, to a journal entitled Maandblad voor muziek [Monthly music journal] that appeared in Holland in the late nineteenth century, but was in fact dedicated wholly to Wagner and his art. Of particular significance is the reproduction here of Mary Burrell's biographical fragment. Burrell was the most important, and undoubtedly the most successful, of the early Wagner researchers. Her marriage to a wealthy man freed her to pursue her studies of the master, though she retained a remarkable degree of objectivity, taking care to steer away from the hagiographic (one might even say, proto-Stalinist) line of Wagner's widow Cosima. Mary Burrell died early, having completed Wagner's biography only as far as the year 1834. As a monument to her and her work, her husband had this fragment published in a bibliophile edition of just 100 copies, in elephant folio. It contains facsimiles of important documents in a quality astonishing for the time, and has become one of the rarest, most sought-after (and most expensive) titles in the history of Wagner research. This microfiche edition now makes this available, and with it many other rare titles of the early Wagner bibliography, at a cost affordable to researchers and Wagner-lovers alike.

Wagner's Mein Leben, 1870-1880
“I dictated the records contained in these volumes, and they were committed directly to paper by my friend and wife, who wished to hear me tell the story of my life ... the value of the autobiography collated here lies in its unadorned truth.”
Wagner's autobiography Mein Leben [My Life] is without doubt one of the most significant literary documents in the history of Western music. But its first untruths are already to be found here, in the opening lines of its foreword. “Untruth” is perhaps too strong a word. This book, which was dictated over a period of 15 years, mixes fact with fiction with breathtaking virtuosity, so that one can never quite be sure where the one starts and the other stops, or to what extent Wagner was himself aware of the merging of the two. For Wagner, historical fact (his “unadorned truth”) could sometimes be what he thought it was, or should have been, even if it wasn't. But this subjectivity merely makes his autobiography - warts and all - an even more important chronical of his life and work.

Work on the book
It was in fact Wagner's patron, Ludwig II of Bavaria, who expressed in a letter of May 28th, 1865 the wish to read about his life - though this wish was undoubtedly then echoed by Wagner's friend and lover (later his “friend and wife”), Cosima. Work on the book began just a few weeks later. Although the fourth and last volume was not completed until 1880, the autobiography ends - tactfully, given the person of the man who commissioned it - with Wagner's being called to Munich by the young Bavarian king in 1864.

Printing history
The printing history of this autobiography is almost as fascinating as the story it tells. Wagner had the first three volumes printed privately by G.A. Bonfantini in Basle, in just 15 copies. The first volume was proofread by no less a man than Friedrich Nietzsche (who was at the time still in the thrall of the master). The fourth and final volume was printed by Th. Burger in Bayreuth in 1880. An edition of Mein Leben was published in 1911, and was soon translated into other languages and read all over the world. However, it had been doctored in order not to embarrass Wagner's heirs or offend the heirs of those whom he criticizes in the book. An edition based on the original manuscript was not published until 1963.

First edition
The first edition of Mein Leben is one of the rarest published documents of the nineteenth century. Of the original 15 copies, those that Wagner had given to selected friends were regained by Cosima after his death. Most were then destroyed (though, unbeknownst to Wagner, his printer Bonfantini had kept a private copy for himself). A mere handful of copies has survived in the great libraries of the world. Wagner scholars today use a modern edition based faithfully on the original manuscript. But as a source document, no modern edition can completely supplant the one whose publication was overseen by Wagner himself. Despite this fact, despite the first edition's bibliophile nature - and its value as a measure of Friedrich Nietzsche's proofreading skills! - it has not been reprinted in facsimile until now. This microfiche edition reproduces the copy held by the Zentralbibliothek Zürich, home to one of the finest collections of Wagneriana in the world. Almost 100 years elapsed between the commencement of Wagner's autobiography and its presentation to the world in a reliable edition; now, almost a century and a half after he began his dictation, his own edition of his memoirs is at last freely available to Wagner lovers and scholars.

The Writings of Mathilde Wesendonck (1828-1902)
Mathilde Wesendonck must count among the most famous women of modern times. Her liaison with Richard Wagner, and her immortalization through his five Wesendonck Songs - settings of poems she wrote and gave to him - have assured her a place in the history books. She is generally regarded as the inspiration for Tristan and Isolde and the Valkyrie. However, as her relationship with Wagner became a modern myth, interest shifted to the composer, with Mathilde herself receding into the background. The famous edition of their correspondence, which was first published in 1904 as Richard Wagner an Mathilde Wesendonck [Richard Wagner (writes) to Mathilde Wesendonck], contains little written by Mathilde herself: Almost all her letters to Wagner had been destroyed by his jealous second wife, Cosima. The book is thus little more than an interior monologue on Wagner's part, with Mathilde relegated to the role of largely silent muse. This could explain why Cosima allowed publication at all, for “Mathilde as muse” is by necessity disembodied, de-sexed, no longer woman, but an invented figure that cannot really be a serious object of envy or sexual jealousy. Mathilde has lost her voice, so to speak, and become little more than a cipher.

Disembodied muse
This interpretation of Mathilde as a disembodied muse was reinforced by the fact that it corresponded with common opinion that a woman could never be much more than a useful appendage to a male genius. It also helps to explain why Mathilde's literary works have never earned anything other than mockery, even though her critics have almost certainly never read them properly. Their scorn has been copied and repeated for decades without further comment. And yet when Wagner published his Wesendonck Songs, he did not reveal the name of the poet, leading the general public to assume him to be the author. This naturally suggests that the quality of the poems was judged to be similar to that of Wagner's own literary works. Perhaps the scorn, then, is misplaced?

Mathilde's Works
We must not get too carried away in Mathilde's defense, however. She is not an undiscovered literary genius waiting to be presented to the world. Her poetic gifts failed her most when she was confronted by life's harshest blows (such as the death of her children). But she was a cultivated, intelligent woman who spoke and wrote several languages, and surrounded herself with men and women of similar taste and intelligence (her admirers included the composers Theodor Kirchner and Johannes Brahms, and the writers Conrad Ferdinand Meyer and Eliza Wille-Sloman). Wagner fell in love with her, not least because she was able to provide him with a higher level of aesthetic discussion than could his own wife. Her poems, short stories, and plays exhibit both expertise and good taste. They also testify to the interest in Germanic myths and legends that she shared with Wagner. Her works are peopled by Norns, Valkyries, water nymphs, and the whole panoply of Nordic gods (though her own dramatized version of the Siegfried story ends with his waking not Brünnhilde, but Sleeping Beauty). Mathilde deserves to be read, and heard.

Largest single collection
This microfiche edition presents facsimiles of the first editions of Mathilde's writings. These were published in small print runs and are available in only a few libraries scattered across the globe (this being perhaps the main reason why hardly anyone has read them: they are difficult to find). The largest single collection is in Zurich, so most of the editions here are from the Zentralbibliothek Zürich and the Zurich City Archives (the latter institution holds the biggest portion of Mathilde's estate). Commentators agree that, without Mathilde Wesendonck, the history of the music of the nineteenth century would look, and sound, quite different. And if her relationship with Wagner prevents us from reading her for herself alone, then we must at least read her in order to understand him. Even if our frame of reference remains fixed with a nineteenth-century bias, how can we comprehend the master if we do not understand his muse? But this microfiche edition does more than help us to understand Mathilde: It allows her to speak in her own voice again.
Hymns of Spiritual and Social Revival in the Early United States
Books and Music from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection

Historical context
This careful selection from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection at the Boston University School of Theology Library reflects the enormous changes that were taking place during the formative years of the United States, that is, in late eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth century. The age was to witness the rapid development of urban centers and industry, along with all the consequent social benefits and ills: the Temperance Movement, the abolition of slavery, the Civil War, the growth of literacy, and improved education and technological advances that would make written materials much more widely available than before. Early in the nineteenth century, Protestant churches in the northeast were to experience the Second Great Awakening. Both "back east" and on the rapidly expanding frontiers of the Old West and the Southwest, burgeoning populations would see the rise of camp meetings, religious revivals, and new initiatives for foreign missions and education, including the establishment of the American Bible Society, American Tract Society, American Board of Foreign Missions, Sunday School Union, and YMCA.

The role of hymns
A great number of hymns and tunes were composed because of, and in their turn contributed to, the enthusiasm of this age. Works for congregational singing were both more numerous and available farther afield by the mid-nineteenth century than ever before. Also, thanks to the efforts of composers, compilers, and publishers, participation in and expectations for such hymn-singing were rising. By the second half of the century, thousands of original hymns and tunes had become mainstays of congregational worship in North America. Significantly, this repertoire came to include items for specific audiences, such as children and youths, soldiers and sailors, and abolitionists. Patriotic and even nationalistic or secular "hymns" became common in increasingly ecumenical, compendious, and widely-marketed collections.

The collectors
The Nutter-Metcalf collection is an amalgamation of hymnological works donated separately by two alumni of Boston University. Charles Sumner Nutter (1842-1928) graduated in 1871, the year in which the Boston Theological School merged with the University. Nutter, a Methodist minister, collected hymnals and wrote both hymns and authoritative books on hymnology. He was Librarian of the New England Methodist Historical Society from 1915 until his death. In 1913, he was appointed Lecturer on Hymnology and Church Music at Boston University School of Theology, and presented his "hymnic library" to the school. The other Boston University alumnus, Frank Johnson Metcalf (1865-1945), gradated in 1886 and went on to work in the U.S. War Office. He, too, collected hymn books and wrote valuable books on hymnology. Metcalf was an avid historian and a member of the American Historical Association. He collaborated on An Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications, and made contributions to the study of local history in Massachusetts.

Scope of the collection
The core of the Nutter-Metcalf collection is composed of hymnody of the First and Second Great Awakenings, and of subsequent, nineteenth-century revivals in the United States. The holdings comprise some 2,500 items from the period 1566-1940, including psalm and hymn books, sacred poetry, religious biography, histories of hymnology, a sampling of reference works, and accounts of particular hymns, denominational or other compilations, and hymn writers. The collection represents a broad array of Christian communities, and is particularly rich in Methodist holdings. The books chart the evolution of the modern, Protestant English hymn - from translations of the Psalter to Watts's lively paraphrases, from the Wesleys' vigorous works to the flowering of hymnody during the Evangelical Revival and the First and Second Great Awakenings, and Victorian retrospection and enthusiasm. Many of Nutter's books bear their owner's valuable inscriptions concerning individual hymns, stanzas, authors, and composers.

The books selected for this project begin chronologically with late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth-century collections of the Second Great Awakening, which moved beyond the influential works of Watts, the Wesleys, and their successors to adopt words and tunes by new authors and composers. These are followed by camp-meeting compilations, school songbooks, temperance hymnals and other gatherings of revival and patriotic music, and gospel hymns, up to and beyond the Civil War.
However, also included are many works falling outside these parameters, which nonetheless increase the scope of our selection and provide a fair picture of the Nutter-Metcalf collection, as well as a few books from Boston University School of Theology Special Collections. Thus, on the one hand, we have chosen notable treasures showing the transition from early British to American, and from psalmodic to hymnodic, practice. On the other hand, we have gathered productions of a traditionalist bent, such as hymn books inspired by the Oxford Movement, collections seminal to new denominations and sects, and a few later nineteenth-century revivalistic compilations.
In contrast, poetic and other anthologies have largely been omitted - unless they are deeply significant - as have scholarly discussions, unless they are short and unique, or biographical. A few books that are atypical of the world represented here have been included (e.g. vernacular, congregational Catholic hymn books), so as to suggest the collection's fuller contours and limits.

Local connection
The Nutter-Metcalf collection notably contains many books produced in New England by such well-known publishers as Isaiah Thomas. These oblong songsters preserve early hymns and tunes (the latter often in several voices) of many British and American authors and composers. Many are prefaced by materials that provide musical instruction and directions for congregational singing, affording a yet wider perspective on the devotional world of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Several of these, and other items in the selection, are titles occurring in Early American Imprints. Pertinent pre-1820 musical publications have been submitted to the RISM project ( Répertoire Internationale des Sources Musicales) at Harvard University.

The project
This selection of works from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection represents a retrospective cataloging and preservation project conducted in the period 1997-2000. The aim was to provide our online library database with Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2r) and Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books (DCRB)-compliant, Library of Congress Machine-Readable Catalog (MARC) bibliographic descriptions at as full a level as possible for each work described. The aim was also to offer richness in subjects, uniform titles, and other access points, particularly in name headings (for authors, composers, printers, stereotypers, engravers, and others), which were to be Library of Congress Name Authorities Cooperative (NACO)-authorized wherever feasible. The success of the project has afforded scholars the opportunity to obtain deeper levels of information, by means of which significant variations between editions of a given work might be perceived at the initial stages of research. It has also more fully exploited the potential of online catalogs as research tools (i.e. as a means of performing sophisticated electronic searches) than has oftentimes been the case.
The Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection project was generously funded by the Lilly Endowment, and academically approved by Boston University School of Theology and the Trustees of Boston University. We gratefully acknowledge our debt to them, and, in addition, give sincere thanks to the Hymn Society in the United States and Canada, and to the staff of IDC for their encouragement and assistance.

Raymond Van De Moortell, Boston University, School of Theology Library; Brian Frykenberg, James Ford Bell Library; and Dawn Piscitello, Boston University, School of Theology Library