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The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas
At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

Highlights:
• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
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The Vernacular Press in the Netherlands Indies, c. 1855-1925
In cooperation with the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV), Leiden

After the successful publication in 2004 of the very rare Indonesian-language periodical Tjahaja Sijang [ The Light of Day], 1869-1925, new collections are created to make more such rare periodicals in Malay and other Indonesian languages available.

Below the original titles are given in italics and the modern Indonesian spelling in Roman type. An English translation of the title is in square brackets.

Unit 1
1. Bintang Oetara: soerat chabar bhâroe derri tânah sabrang Bârat
Bintang Utara : surat kabar baru dari tanah seberang Barat [Northern star]
Year: 1856-1857.
2. Bientang Timoor: soerat kabar di Soerabaija
Bintang Timur [Eastern star]
Year: 1865-1868
3. Tjahaja India
Cahaya India [Light of the Indies]
Year: 1885-
4. Penghentar: soerat chabar Moluko
Pengentar: surat kabar Maluku [Messenger, a missionary newspaper for the Moluccas]
Year: 1894-1897
5. Soerat chabar soldadoe
Surat kabar serdadu [Soldiers’ newspaper]
Year: 1900-1901
6. Bandera Wolanda: dikaloewarkan saminggoe sekali
Bandera Wolanda [The Netherlands’ flag]
Year: 1901-1903
Produced mostly by the Central Newsreel and Documentary Film Studio of China, documentary films and newsreels were two of the major mass media and communication channels in China from the 1950’s through the 1970’s. They covered all aspects of social activities, though the emphasis was on developments and achievements in the building of a socialist country. In order to reach even broader public audiences, government agents produced and printed the transcripts and shot lists for the films and sent them to cities and rural areas. The bulk of the items in the collection are transcripts for the documentary films and newsreels from the Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976. Few of these printed materials have survived due to the poor quality of the paper upon which they were printed. All documents in the collection are in Chinese.

• Dates: (inclusive): 1946-1985
• Languages used: Chinese
• EAD finding aids are available

Location of originals: Duke University Library, Durham
Contributor: A. V. Znatnov
The Old Believers movement

The Old Believers
The Old Believers (or “Old Ritualists”) originated as a group of religious dissenters opposed to Patriarch Nikon’s ritualistic innovations in the second half of the 17th century. The dispute over the revision of the service books, which initially had a religious and cultural character, soon escalated and resulted in the schism of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Persecuted by the authorities for adhering to the old rituals and service books, the Old Believers fled European Russia and settled in the sparsely populated areas of Siberia and the far north. Many of their communities lived in almost complete isolation, thus preserving the old liturgical practices that were crucial to their religious and cultural identity.
After years of persecution, the situation improved for the Old Believers in 1905, when Tsar Nicholas II issued the Edict of Toleration. In 1971, the Russian Orthodox Church revoked the anathemas of the 17th century.
Today, there are about 2.5 million Old Believers living in Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the world.
The Old Belief is not only a religious movement, but also a social and cultural phenomenon. From the end of the 17th until the beginning of the 20th century, the Old Believers participated increasingly actively in the social and political processes in Russia. Their books and periodicals are a unique historical source for tracing the relations between Old Believer communities and the world at large, and for establishing the role and status of the Old Believers within Russian society, their influence on the social and cultural processes in Russia, their economic activities, and their cooperation with the representatives of other religious creeds. Today, there are about 2.5 million Old Believers living in Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the world.

Illegal book printing and samizdat
Starting in 1653 with the publication of the first amended service book, the Old Believers rejected the alterations imposed by Patriarch Nikon and recognized only those books that predated his reforms. Because the State had a monopoly on book printing and confiscated old liturgical material, an alarming shortage of old religious books soon became felt. The Old Believers responded by printing their own service books in illegal printing houses in Russia, as well as abroad - Austria, Prussia, and the Kingdom of Poland. They also ran secret print shops (Moscow and its surroundings, the Volga region, the Urals, and Siberia) and often succeeded in misleading the authorities by putting a false place of publication on the title page. Historians agree that these illegally produced materials were the first form of samizdat literature to appear in Russia.

The Golden Age of book printing
The practice of illegal book-printing came to an end with the enactment of the Edict of Tolerance in 1905 – a date generally considered to mark the beginning of the Golden Age of the Old Believers’ book printing.
In only thirteen years more books were published than during the two preceding centuries combined. These years also witnessed a flood of newspapers, journals, calendars and an impressive number of original monographs.
The Old Believers’ book production during the “Golden Age” is estimated to exceed one thousand titles, many of which enjoyed high print runs. Old prayer books dating from before the Nikon reforms were reprinted, some of which for the first time and on the basis of ancient manuscripts: the Apostolos, the Ostrog Bible, Stoglav (a moral codex of “hundred chapters”), the famous Domostroi and the Pomorskie otvety ( Answers from Pomor’e). For the first time chant books could be accurately printed.

Old Believer printing houses
After 1905, there were about a dozen Old Believer printing houses throughout the country, for example, in Moscow, Ural’sk, and Nizhniĭ Novgorod. One of the largest and best known was the one set up in Moscow in 1907 by the prominent businessman, P.P. Riabushinskiĭ. It was housed in a famous building that had been designed by the architect F. Shekhtel´ according to the modern style.

Publishing in exile
This period of freedom was relatively short, however: In 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power and closed down all religious printing houses. For a while, the Old Believers continued printing books (mostly anti-Soviet material) on Russian soil, but only in those areas that were controlled by the White Movement. Between the second half of the 1920s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Old Believers were again forced to live in exile. They set up print shops in Harbin (China), Chisinau (which was then in Rumania, but is now the capital of Moldova), Poland, Latvia, Switzerland, the United States, and Australia. Until 1991, book production in Russia was limited to a few church calendars, and these were strictly censored and scarcely distributed.

Spiritual heritage
The religious books that were printed prior to Nikon’s reforms have always had a sacred status among Old Believers. Considering any alteration in the text a distortion of the Word of God, they have persisted in using the Old Slavic language and the kirillicheskiĭ shrift.
Rigorous and uncompromizing, the Old Believers have played an absolutely crucial role in the preservation of the Russian book, the Russian icon and Russia’s spiritual heritage at large.

Installment 1: Periodicals
The series on the Old Believers provides a wide variety of materials that will help to shed new light on the fascinating history of this religious minority and its place in Russian history. The present installment includes the most prominent and widely read Old Believers’ periodicals published between 1905 and 1918. The collection includes, amongst others, journals of the Popovtsy ( Zlatostrui, Mirskaia zhizni), of the so-called Pomor´e Union ( Shchit very, Vestnik Vserossiĭ skogo soiuza khristian pomorskogo soglasiia), the Belokrinitskiĭ Hierarchy ( Tserkov’, Staroobriadcheskaia mysl’, Staroobriadets) and the Chapel Consent ( Ural´skiĭ staroobriadets). Published during one of the most dynamic and turbulent periods of Russian history, these periodicals allow us to appreciate the traditional, yet vibrant world of the Old Believers at the eve of the revolution.

Installment 2: Old Believer Cyrillic-script books
The printing of Old Believer books in kirillicheskiĭ shrift is a unique phenomenon in book history. The Old Believer movement carried on the traditions of Russian Orthodox Christianity into the middle of the 20th century. The Old Believer culture was outstanding in its rigorous acceptance of Cyrillic Church Slavonic texts, and in its guarded attitude toward the same texts printed in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, which were introduced by Peter I in 1708. The books printed in Cyrillic have therefore always been the main source of information concerning the history and spiritual faith of the Old Believers. The beginning of the 20th century witnessed an avalanche of printed Old Believer religious literature. This literature comprises a number of original monographs, titled books, and icon-painting originals, as well as reprinted anti-Old Believer pamphlets in krillicheskiĭ shrift bearing polemic comments written by Old Believer adepts.

Installment 3. Old Believer secular literature
At the dawn of the 20th century, the Old Believers exhibited an amazing ability to adapt to the new social and economic conditions without abandoning their traditional culture or their religious beliefs. This period saw the birth and subsequent blossoming of the widely known business dynasties. One of the main driving forces behind the printing of books in grazhdanskiĭ shrift was the revival of the polemic disputes between the Old Believers and the official Church. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Old Believers printed their secular literature in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, in order to draw attention to their crucial need for a greater number of sympathizers from the outside.
The variety of this type of Old Believer literature is extensive, ranging from historical and ethnographic works, polemic and political essays, scholarly works on philosophy, economics, and statistics, to works on theology and law, the minutes of Old Believer assemblies, fiction, and even poetry.
The recourse by the Old Believers to grazhdanskiĭ shrift and their deliberate orientation toward the “outside” reader and secular themes, makes this literature both more accessible and richer in substance and variety of topics.

Libraries
The project is executed in close cooperation with Russia’s main libraries: the State Historical Public Library in Moscow, the National Library of Russia and the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BAN) in St. Petersburg.
Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 1: Index to the Public Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1814-1849

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 2: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1825-1839

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 3: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1901-1958

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

<>bDutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Nineteenth-Century Dutch-Japanese / Japanese-Dutch Manuscript Dictionaries and Related Documents: The J.K. van den Broek Collection

edited by Dr. Herman J. Moeshart

on microfiche

Introduction
Dr. Jan Karel van den Broek (1814-1865) was a Dutch physician who spent four years in Japan on the island of Deshima near Nagasaki from 1853-1857. During these four years he instructed many Japanese pupils in the use of western technology and science. In this period and earlier the Japanese rangakusha (students of western sciences) made extensive use of imported Dutch books and magazines as sources. The need for a teacher who could explain the texts and solve problems for the Japanese technicians was great. Van den Broek, who had been one of the foremost members of the learned society Tot Nut en Vergenoegen [For benefit and pleasure] in the town of Arnhem, played the role of a living encyclopedia in Japan.

Van den Broek in Japan
From August 1853 till November 1857 he made himself indispensable to the director of the Dutch trading post at Deshima by his demonstrations for high placed Japanese visitors and even more so by repairing the royal present to the shogun of Japan - an electromagnetic telegraph that arrived damaged there in 1854. Year after year the number of his Japanese pupils and the number of questions posed by the Japanese grew steadily.

Origin of the dictionary project
In December 1854, he started to compile Japanese-Dutch and Dutch-Japanese dictionaries. His motivation for undertaking this project, which would keep him occupied for the rest of his life, was a quarrel with one of the Japanese interpreters. At the request of the Daimyo of Hizen, Nabeshima Naomasa, Van den Broek, gave a talk on the harbour defences of Nagasaki, explained that the fortresses this daimyo had erected were of little value in defending against an attack by a modern western fleet. The interpreter, fearing angering his lord, did not want to translate this into Japanese. When ordered all the same to translate Van den Broek's words, the ruler was not angered but simply asked Van den Broek to explain what was wrong. Van den Broek concluded from this incident that his words were not always rendered correctly into Japanese and started the compilation of his dictionaries. He continued to work on them the rest of his life and at his death in 1865, he left a legacy of many Japanese books brought back from Japan and a great number of large-format manuscript volumes in which he compiled his dictionary and kept his notes and drafts. This work was never to be published. The Japanese-Dutch dictionary was completed before his death, but he did not live to finish the Dutch- Japanese volumes.

Dictionaries rediscovered
After his death his books, notes and the manuscripts of his dictionaries found their way to the municipal library at Arnhem where Herman Moeshart rediscovered them in 2001.

Importance for research
Among the dictionaries made by the Dutch in Japan those of Van den Broek merit a special place. He was the only one who compiled a complete Japanese-Dutch dictionary to which he added a thick volume with "conversations", illustrating the use of Japanese and providing a conversation handbook for the Dutch in Japan. The availability of Van den Broek's work in microform will be of great interest to students of the development of the Japanese language in the nineteenth century and historical philology, among others.

Other works in the collection
In addition to the manuscripts of the dictionaries, the Van den Broek collection also includes: a 13-volume Chinese encyclopedia from 1705; an eighteenth- or nineteenth-century Chinese dictionary; an illustrated Japanese guide to flower arranging; a similarly illustrated guide to martial arts; a Japanese book of epigrams; a nineteenth-century Japanese guide to "rangaku"; an 1861 Japanese map of Edo; and a few other assorted volumes.
The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 1. Documents from the Secret Archives of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor General

Introduction
The end of the Second World War in August 1945 sounded the death knell of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia. The proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia by Sukarno and Hatta on 17 August 1945 ushered in a confusing and complicated period of anticolonial struggle, civil war, military action by the Dutch and negotiations between the parties that ultimately led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic on 27 December 1949.

New series
This collection forms the first part in a new series of micro-publications on the end of Dutch colonialism in Asia being planned and carried out in cooperation with the National Archives in The Hague. It can be regarded as the continuation of the now dormant series "War and Decolonization" by MMF Publications, with which it does not overlap. The five parts of that series are also available from Moran Micropublications.

Focus
The new series has as theme "the Dutch political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" not only in the pivotal years 1945-1949, but also extending into the early 1960s in order to cover the process of decolonization of Netherlands New Guinea, over which the Dutch had refused to transfer sovereignty at the end of 1949. It will also reach back into the 1930s and the years of war and occupation (1942-1945) to provide the necessary background to the crisis that ensued on 17 August 1945.

Part 1: Secret Archive
In consultation with archivists at the National Archives the first documents chosen for micropublication are from the Secret Archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor-General (in Dutch: Geheim archief van de Algemene Secretarie en van het kabinet van de gouverneur-generaal).

The General Secretariat
The General Secretariat was the administrative apparatus that assisted the Governor-general in his task from 1816 until its dissolution in 1950. Its archives, formed in Indonesia, contain a virtually complete account of the
political activities and statecraft of the Netherlands Indies Government. The secret archives of the Algemene Secretarie were brought to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence and are now in the National Archives. The public part of its archive was transferred to the Republic of Indonesia and is housed in the Arsip Nasional in Jakarta.

Documents
The documents reproduced in the present collection concern the "Political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" from the end of the Second World War until the transfer of sovereignty at the end of 1949. They trace the development of events in great detail and allow the study of this conflict in all its aspects. The documents include many secret intelligence reports, captured Republican papers, political memoranda and many others.

Inventory
The collection has been completely inventoried by archivists of the National Archives and is now available from Moran Micropublications. The inventory is available for consultation free of charge from Moran and is also posted on our website (see right column).
Colonial-Period Korea
Rare sources from the C.V. Starr East Asian Library

In 1876 Japan "opened" Korea to outside contact, and subsequently sparred with China over the right of influence in Korea. This rivalry culminated in the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-95. After Japan's victory, the Japanese government steadily increased its presence and interference in Korean matters until finally, in 1910, the country was annexed outright. Korea remained a Japanese colony until the end of the Pacific war in 1945.

The collection
The present collection brings together three distinct groups of publications dating from this colonial period. It includes Japanese publications on Korea, Western (mostly English) early impressions of Korea, and Korean colonial-period literature. All materials included are drawn from the holdings of the C.V. Starr East Asian Library at Columbia University, New York. Some of the materials included are exceptionally rare. Others are rapidly deteriorating due to age, poor quality paper, and other causes. All are highly valuable (primary) sources for scholars of Korea and things Korean. The collection is particularly important and timely because it preserves the intellectual content of publications which are at risk of disappearing for good – many of these volumes are unavailable anywhere else – and because it makes rare materials more readily accessible to a larger audience.

1. Japanese publications
During the period of Japanese influence and rule, large numbers of Japanese diplomats, officials, and scholars went to Korea. Many went to rule of course, but many also went to study the country and its culture. This resulted in a substantial body of both official and scholarly Japanese publications on Korea. The publications included here cover a broad range of subject matter, from art and archaeology to the sciences, and including education, natural history, religion, rural conditions, and more. Not surprisingly, a particularly large number of the publications relate to Japan's involvement with Korea. General works on Korean history and culture are also represented in substantial numbers. The publications present a thorough insight into colonial Korea from the colonizers' point of view.

2. Western-language publications
During the period after Korea's "opening" Westerners were, for the first time, able to travel to and inside Korea. Some of these Westerners took this opportunity to observe the country, its people, and its culture and recorded their impressions of the "Hermit Kingdom." Barring one or two much earlier accounts, these are essentially the earliest Western impressions of Korea and Korean culture. Although a variety of subjects are covered in these publications, including history, religion, and more, the vast majority are written in a travelogue-like style.

3. Korean colonial-period literature
Not surprisingly, within Korea, resistance developed against Japanese rule, and resistance movements were organized. One example of resistance behavior was the use of the Korean language in publications, during a time Japanese was pronounced the official language and the use of Korean was discouraged. Columbia University's C.V. Starr East Asian Library holds a unique collection of Korean classical novels, printed in old printing type. The original texts of the collection are an invaluable bibliographical tool for researchers in the field of Korean literature during the Japanese colonial period. This was a time when there was a big increase of interest in Korean novels among the general public. Many popular works dealing with the classics were published in many different versions, with alterations which present research needs for verifying the transitions of classical works over the period. Since some of the texts are written in a very old form of the Korean language, the collection is of great interest among Korean language scholars as research sources on Korean archaic words and writing style. Their particular value, however, lies in the importance of this period, as well as in the rarity of these materials in both the U.S. and Korea.
Statistics on China
An addition to the series on Economics / Social Sciences

The microfiche edition contains figures on census, economical development, commerce and trade. Especially noteworthy are the considerable ranges of data on various “Treaty Ports” and their provinces, including the major ports of Harbin, Nanking and Shanghai, and various medium-sized and smaller ports, such as: Aigun, Dairen, Tientsin, Lungkhow, Chungking, Wanshien, Changsha, Soochow, Hangchow, Foochow, etc.
In many cases, this information extends over several decades, providing rare insights into trade, navigation, industries, and population development.
The present material derives from the holdings of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), The Hague, The Netherlands. Apart from the most recent statistical information, the CBS maintains a significant library with historical statistical publications, from which IDC Publishers has made a selection.
Anti-Soviet Newspapers

Civil War
The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the Provisional Government in 1917 left a power vacuum in the former Russian Empire. In the resulting chaos, a number of both real and shadow governments emerged. These ranged from centralist (Bolsheviks, Whites) through separatist-nationalist (Ukraine, Cossack Hosts, Transcaucasian Republics) to peasant-anarchist (Makhno) governments. Although the Bolsheviks had no trouble seizing power in November 1917, they managed to consolidate their new position only after several years of bitter struggle in a major civil war with the counterrevolutionary forces referred to as the "White Movement."

Miraculous survival
Until recently, the sources that could shed new light on Russia's civil war period (1918-1922) were not available to researchers. Because of the instability and constantly changing conditions of the civil war, it was impossible to collect the numerous volatile, short-lived newspapers, which were constantly appearing and disappearing. Daily papers meant for mass consumption were sent to the front line, and over it into the enemy's territory. Once read, they were used either to roll cigarettes or to bind feet, and consequently disappeared without trace.
In the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1950s, there were "ideological purges" of the newspaper stocks held by Soviet libraries. During these purges, many of the White Movement press items that had miraculously escaped destruction were now destroyed, because they were regarded as ideologically harmful and superfluous. Those that were not destroyed were withdrawn from scholarly circulation and packed away in special depositories. All information about them was proscribed, which is why none of the larger archives or libraries possesses a complete list of titles or sets of the White Movement press of the period. This makes any copy of a newspaper - let alone whole sets - of the utmost importance.

Unique Collection
The collection is unique in that its contents reflect all aspects of life in that stormy period, which was replete with revolutionary upheavals and civil strife. The variety of material published in these newspapers is astounding. Alongside material reflecting political issues and the burning topics of the day, the collection presents the widest range and variety of newspapers, from those carrying marriage announcements to a batch titled "On the way: News from Chairman of Revolutionary Council Trotsky's Train." This latter newspaper was dubbed "anti-Bolshevik" after Trotsky's rift with J. Stalin. The IDC collection contains official civic and military documents from the White Movement executive organs, central and local news, news from the civil war fronts, information about the activities of regional and local administrations, and press releases from credit, industrial, and cooperative stablishments and savings banks. Juxtaposed with these are facts about everyday life, reflecting the work of various charitable societies and organizations, theatrical performances, concerts, and other major and minor cultural events. Interspersed with these is a very wide range of advertisements. Thus, the collection will provide researchers with not only a rich store of materials to examine, but also the opportunity to make new discoveries.

Literary Treasures
The collection contains lots of material dealing with belles-lettres and literary criticism that holds indispensable information yet to be assessed by literary critics and scholars. Many prominent Russian politicians, scholars, and writers who later lived in exile, published their works in the newspapers of the period. For example, the well-known writer A.I. Kuprin published the newspaper The Prinevsky Krai; N.V. Ustrryalov - the ideologist of the Smenovekhovstvo - was in charge of the Russian Press Bureau under Admiral A.V. Kolchak's government, and also actively cooperated with a number of White newspapers in Siberia; the fathers of the "White Idea" - namely N.N. Lvov and V.V. Shulgin - were active in the south of Russia; and B.A. Suvorin was the publisher of The Evening Time, the largest White newspaper in southern Russia.
A number of widely known writers and poets - for example, Vs. Ivanov, M. Voloshin, Teffi, A.V. Amphiteatrov, and A.T. Averchenko - published their literary pieces and essays in various White newspapers. These newspapers also contain a great variety of drawings, caricatures, and chastushkii (two- or four-line ditties on some topical or humorous theme).

Structure of the Collection
The term "anti-Soviet newspapers" embraces all the newspapers containing anti-Bolshevik propaganda published in the territories controlled by the Whites and the Reds in the period 1918-1922. In accordance with the character of its materials, the collection can be divided into three parts.
The first, and largest, part contains 405 White Movement newspapers. This is the periodic press of different White Guard governments, along with press items from various military and civic organs, establishments and organizations of anti-soviet orientation. Also in this category are most newspapers published in the territories that were controlled by White Movement governments. Such newspapers, which on the whole were either neutral to the White governments or showed some respect for them, were delegated to the care of the special depository for the simple reason of having been published in the territories controlled by the Whites. Practically all the newspapers of the White Movement governments are represented in the NLR collection.
The second part, though smaller (287 titles), is also of extreme importance: it comprises the newspapers that were published in the territories controlled by the Soviets but which were opposed to the "Bolshevik commissars state," though some of them supported the idea of keeping the Soviets "without Bolsheviks," and were extremely critical about some of the Bolshevik government's decisions. These included Social Revolutionary (SR) newspapers, newspapers that were dubbed "petty-bourgeois" by the Bolsheviks, and anti-Bolshevik newspapers with different Russian Social Democratic Labor Party affiliations. The "petty-bourgeois" newspapers were primarily meant for various categories of service providers (e.g., small shopkeepers, cooks, etc.), and paid little attention to the "class struggle" or the glorification of the power of the People's Commissars; in fact, they simply ignored this power.
The third, and smallest, part (six titles) comprises émigré newspapers published by Russians in Harbin, China.

Provenance
The history of this collection is connected with the name of N.V. Iakovlev (1891-1981), a well-known literary scholar and a participant in S.A. Vengerov's Pushkin Seminar. In 1919, the Russian (Omsk) government of A. Kolchak created the Temporary Bureau of the Book Chamber and appointed Iakovlev as its director. In Omsk, on August 1, 1919, Iakovlev called for people to collect and preserve any and all printed material, "since the events we are living through have world-wide significance." The result is the world's largest collection of regional White Movement newspapers and leaflets. In 1920, the collection was taken to Petrograd and handed over to the custody of the Petrograd Book Chamber. When, later in the same year, the capital was moved to Moscow , the collection was transferred to the Russian Public Library (now the NLR).

Finding aids
A catalogue of this collection - Nesovetskie gazety 1918-1922. Katalog sobraniia Rossiiskoi natsional'noi biblioteki. Sankt-Peterburg: Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka, 2003 - was completed by Prof. G.V. Mikheeva and published by NLR. The catalogue provides an alphabetical list of newspapers' indexes of personal names and places of publication. It is available together with the microfiche collection.
Researchers who are interested in the regional spread of the newspapers can get this information from the regional subdivisions of the newspapers in the collection, which groups newspapers territorially (i.e., those published in southern Russia, Siberia, etc.). This list is available on the IDC website.

The National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia St. Petersburg (www.nlr.ru) is one of the world's largest libraries: its collection numbers more than 32.8 million items, 6 million of which are written in a foreign language. The library possesses one of the largest collections of White Movement materials. Until recently, these newspapers were sealed in a special depository at the NLR and were unavailable to researchers. Until now, neither facsimile nor any other type of reproduction of these
Asian Law - South East Asia
This collection is a selection of titles on Asian Law. The selection includes titles concerning Mongolian Law, Vietnamese Law and dissertations on Netherlands Indies law between 1850 and 1945. You will also find titles on public and private Asian law from the catalogue and bibliography of international law compiled by Marquis de Olivart.

This collection is also included in the Asian Law - South East Asia collection.