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Author: Maria Kennedy
Dr Kennedy’s work is a sociological study of Quakers that investigates the impact that sectarianism has had on identity construction within the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland. The research highlights individual Friends’ complex and hybrid cultural, national and theological identities – mirrored by the Society’s corporate identity. This monograph focuses specifically on examples of political and theological hybridity. These hybrid identities resulted in tensions which impact on relationships between Friends and the wider organisation. How Friends negotiate and accommodate these diverse identities is explored. It is argued that Irish Quakers prioritise ‘relational unity’ and have developed a distinctive approach to complex identity management. Kennedy asserts that in the two Irish states, ‘Quaker’ represents a meta-identity that is counter-cultural in its non-sectarianism, although this is more problematic within the organisation. Furthermore, by modelling an alternative, non-sectarian identity, Quakers in Ireland contribute to building capacity for transformation from oppositional, binary identities to more fluid and inclusive ones.
Text-Bild-Kombinationen bei Jean Le Gac und Sophie Calle
Die Kombination von Texten und Bildern ist seit den 1960er Jahren gängige Kunstpraxis. Anhand detaillierter, vergleichender Analysen paradigmatischer Arbeiten der französischen Künstler Jean Le Gac und Sophie Calle zeigt die Autorin, wie die aus der Konzeptkunst hervorgegangene Story Art das Potential des erzählenden Wortes und die suggestive Kraft der Fotografie in einem irritierenden Wechselspiel verbindet. Im Mittelpunkt des komplexen medialen Beziehungsgeflechts der untersuchten Kunstwerke steht die künstlerische Selbstbeschreibung, die bei beiden Künstlern in einer Vervielfältigung von Identitätsangeboten mündet. Wie bedingen sich in den Arbeiten von Jean Le Gac und Sophie Calle das Changieren zwischen Autoporträt und Autobiographie einerseits und die Auflösung linearer Selbstdarstellungen andererseits gegenseitig? Um dem Beziehungsgeflecht zwischen Form und Inhalt, Gestaltung und Gestalt sprachlich gerecht zu werden, greift die Autorin auf die für die Postmoderne grundlegende Referenzkategorie der Hybride zurück und prüft, inwiefern sie für das wissenschaftliche Sprechen über die konkreten bimedialen künstlerischen Selbstinszenierungen adäquat und fruchtbar erscheint.
Volume Editors: Graeme Dunphy and Rainer Emig
An interdisciplinary and transcultural study of comedy in a pan-European perspective that include East, West, and Southern European examples. These range from humour in Polish poetry via jokes about Italian migrants in English-speaking TV commercials to Turkish comedy, literature and cartoons in Germany, Turkish, Surinamese, Iranian and Moroccan literary humour in the Netherlands, Beur humour in many media in France, and Asian humour in literature, film, and TV series in Great Britain. The volume is prefaced and informed by contemporary postcolonial theories that show humour not as an essential quality of each particular culture or as a common denominator of humanity, but as a complex structure of dialogue, conflict, and sometimes resolution. The volume is of interest for students and scholars of Comparative Literature, Cultural Studies, and Media Studies as well as for students and experts in the cultures and literatures that are covered in the collection of essays. It is relevant for courses on globalisation, migration, and integration.
Author: Guangchu
All major crop plants have been subjected to genetic improvement, either by selection and propagation or by breeding. Bamboos have received scant attention from plant breeders despite their importance as crop plants due to their unpredictable and uncontrollable flowering habits and to a limited understanding of genetic variation amongst the existing species. The potential for new, improved bamboo hybrids is enormous. The demand for bamboo is increasing worldwide and the diversity of uses to which it is put is growing steadily. Increases in demand can be met by increasing the areas of bamboo plantations, but improvements in the quality of raw bamboo can only be met by selection and breeding.
Professor Zhang Guangchu of Guangdong Forestry Research Institute has worked on bamboo hybridization for almost thirty years and has amassed a wide range of skills and experience. She has produced hybrid bamboos that are now being grown commercially in South China. INBAR recently invited her to distil her experiences and make them available to a wider audience and this manual is the result. The manual refers primarily to the bamboos of southern China where the author is based, but the principles and techniques are applicable worldwide.
This manual is one of the products of INBARs Ecological Security programme, which aims to improve the genetic diversity, conservation and management of bamboo and rattan resources, and to promote their use in environmental protection and rehabilitation. It aims to be the catalyst for scientists, technicians, foresters, farmers and individuals to undertake bamboo hybridization in their own regions, to stimulate relevant research and to promote the wider acceptance and use of hybrid bamboos.
Michelle Cliff, David Dabydeen, Opal Palmer Adisa
The two volumes on Postcolonialism and Autobiography examine the affinity of postcolonial writing to the genre of autobiography. The contributions of specialists from Northern Africa, Europe and the United States focus on two areas in which the interrelation of postcolonialism and autobiography is very prominent and fertile: the Maghreb and the Anglophone and Francophone Caribbean. The colonial background of these regions provides the stimulus for writers to launch a program for emancipation in an effort to constitute a decolonized subject in autobiographical practice. While the French volume addresses issues of the autobiographical genre in the postcolonial conditions of the Maghreb and the Caribbean with reference to France, the English volume analyzes the autobiographical writings of David Dabydeen (Guyana), Michelle Cliff, Opal Palmer Adisa, George Lamming, Wilson Harris (Jamaica), and Jamaica Kincaid (Antigua) who have maintained their cultural Caribbean origin while living in England or the United States. Critics such as William Boelhower, Leigh Gilmore, Sidonie Smith, and Gayatri Spivak reveal the many layers of different cultures (Indian, African, European, American) that are covered over by the colonial powers. The homeland, exile, the experience of migration and hybridity condition the postcolonial existence of writers and critics. The incorporation of excerpts from the writers' works is meant to show the great variety and riches of a hybrid imagination and to engage in an interactive dialogue with critics.
Versuch über den Menschen zwischen Artefakt und Lebewesen
Ein Biofakt ist ein semiartifizielles Lebewesen, begrifflich gefaßt als Verschmelzung von "Leben" (gr. bios) und "Artefakt". Damit wird ein neuer Begriff eingeführt, mit dem die vage Grenze zwischen Natur und Technik in bezug auf bio-, nano- und informationstechnische Methoden deutlichere Konturen bekommt. Vor dem Hintergrund der philosophischen Anthropologie, die gegenwärtig versucht, den Menschen als Hybrid zwischen Techniknutzer und Naturwesen zu beschreiben, spielt das Phänomen des Wachstums eine entscheidende Rolle. Denn Natur ist dasjenige, das sich von selbst bewegt, das wächst - Technik und Kunst ist dasjenige, das von außen bewegt und geschaffen wird. So zog schon Aristoteles die Unterscheidung zwischen Natürlichkeit und Künstlichkeit, eine Unterscheidung, die durch moderne Techniken zunehmend problematisch wird. Autoren aus verschiedenen Perspektiven und Disziplinen gehen dieser Unterscheidung auf den Grund.
Urban displacement and failed encounters in surrealist and postmodern writing
Author: Daniela Daniele
This book traces the origins of the Postmodern eclectic grammar of linguistic collision back in the Surrealist poetics of ruins. Keeping in mind the images of lost direction in the big city as a central figure in the discussion of both the Modern and Postmodern aesthetics of displacement, Daniele starts comparing the epiphanic encounters of the Baudelairian flâneur in metropolitan Paris - in constant search for the traces of a lost symbolic order - with Breton's enigmatic pursuit of Nadja, the elusive sphinx in the crowd who moves in a mental territory of puzzling condensations and of ineffable objets trouvé. In his visual and written work, Marcel Duchamp was probably the first artist to envision the space of the crowd as a trans-urban, multiple dimension: a cool arena of disjunctive encounters contributing to transform the Surrealist erotic space of desire in a cooler, open field of performance.
Deeply influenced by Duchamp's hybrid aesthetics, American Postmodern writers such as Donald Barthelme and Thomas Pynchon, and the performance artist Laurie Anderson, represent metropolis as a “geographical incest”, as a plural, entropic semiosphere which transcends the notion of urban community to become the tolerant receptacle of an ethnic and discoursive multiplicity, an electronic area of linguistic collisions translatable in new fragmented and unfinished narratives. Evoking the assemblages of Abstract Expressionists, the debris of Simon Rodia “junk art”, and the hybrid language of Postmodern architecture, this neo-Surrealist narrative discourse transforms the epiphanic traces envisioned by the Baudelairian and Bretonian heroes in partial parodies, in enigmatic fragments whose ultimate source transcends the narrator's knowledge. The conceptual strategy which is constitutive of these texts implicitly asks the puzzled reader to disentangle the entropic plots, immerging him in the midst of a “linguistic wilderness,” where all opposites - fact and fiction, man and machine, man and female - enigmatically and humorously coexist.
Author: Linda Cummins
Rather than solid frames, some less than perfect aesthetic objects have permeable membranes which allow them to diffuse effortlessly into the everyday world. In the parallel universes of music and literature, Linda Cummins extols the poetry of such imperfection. She places Debussy's work within a tradition thriving on anti-Aristotelian principles: motley collections, crumbling ruins real or fake, monstrous hybrids, patchwork and palimpsest, hasty sketches, ellipses, truncated beginnings and endings, meandering arabesques, irrelevant digressions, auto-quotations. Sensitive to the intermittences of memory and experience and with a keen ear for ironic intrusion, Cummins draws the reader into the Western cultural past in search of the surprisingly ubiquitous aesthetic of the unfinished, negatively silhouetted against expectations of rational coherence. Theories popularized by Schlegel and embraced by the French Symbolists are only the first waypoint on an elaborately illustrated tour reaching back to Petrarch. Cummins meticulously applies the derived results to Debussy's scores and finds convincing correlations in this chiasmatic crossover.
The simultaneously tautological and oxymoronic nature of word / image relations has become a subject of massive debate in the post-modern period. This is not only because of the increasing predominance of word / image messages within our modern media-saturated culture, but also because intellectual disciplines are becoming increasingly sensitized to the essentially hybrid nature of the way we construct meaning in the world. The essays in this volume offer an exemplary insight into both aspects of this phenomenon. Focussing on both traditional and modern media (theatre, fiction, poetry, graphic art, cinema), the essays of Reading Images and Seeing Words are deeply concerned to show how it is according to signifying codes (rhetoric, poetics, metaphor), that meaning and knowledge are produced. Not the least value of this collection is the insight it gives into the multiple models of word / image interaction and the rich ambiguity of the tautological and oxymoronic relations they embody.