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China and the European Union
Editors: Mehdi Amineh and Guang YANG
Since the conclusion of the 1985 trade and cooperation agreement between the European Community and China, a new political dynamic has been set in motion between two emerging entities: industrializing China and integrating Europe. It is reflected in, among others, European Commission policy strategy papers and, probably more importantly, in numerous sectoral dialogues and agreements. Europe has become China’s largest export destination. For the E.U., China has become its second largest trading partner and its most important source of imports.
The book edited by Mehdi Parvizi Amineh and Yang Guang studies the fueling of this Eurasian production and trading system. This is the policy area of energy supplies and energy security. Cooperation on the basis of complementarity is rather easy. Cooperation in the competition for access to, and share in, non-renewable stocks of oil and gas is more challenging. This book studies a series of bilateral energy relations (Part One) in a global-level, geo-political framework. Policy outcomes in bilateral relations are impacted by multi-lateral networks. Part Two surveys the quest for renewable energy, which is the core of supply security. China has created the largest solar panel production facility. It is capable of producing light-weight magnets used in, among others, wind-power generators and hybrid car engines. This year China is expected to overtake the U.S. as the largest producer of wind turbines. China’s step-by-step reduction of the gap in wealth and power with countries that overran it in the past has so far been remarkably peaceful. We know in both Europe and China all too well that trend-driven change in capability ratios between great powers does not by necessity harmonize well with leadership responses to it. By charting the domain of the energy competition, this book marks an important contribution to the rationalization of energy policy as an area of competitive cooperation.
— Henk Houweling, Instructor at the Europe Institute of the University of Macao

Contributors are Mehdi Parvizi Amineh, Robert M. Cutler, Chen Mo, Eva Patricia Rakel, Daniel Scholten, Philip Sen, Raquel Shaoul, Frank Umbach, Eduard B. Vermeer, Shi Dan, and Yang Guang.
Ilina Cenevska’s new book, The European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union Context: The 'Outsider' Within explores the unique nature of the Euratom Community as an entity that establishes a supranational regulation in the civil nuclear industry, which, while formally belonging to the European Union construct, is coincidentally somewhat kept ‘outside’ the mainstream developments in the Union. The book surveys Euratom’s status as an ‘outsider within’ the European Union through the correlation between the principles and mechanisms particular to the functioning of the Euratom legal framework and those devised under the Union framework stricto sensu, focusing on two specific areas - nuclear safeguards and health and safety in the nuclear domain.
Electricity supply plays a strategic role for Russia’s economic development and for social peace. As a main consumer of natural gas, electricity is also of central importance for the efficient management of Russia’s energy resource basis. Today, however, the electricity sector is in an obsolete condition. Investments are needed in the modernization of the infrastructure. This book analyzes the liberalization and privatization program that Russia is implementing to attract private investments in this modernization process. Taking a comparative approach, this analysis critically assesses Russian electricity law in the light of the European liberalization experience. Given the strategic importance of electricity, investors face significant risks of government intervention. This book identifies these regulatory risks and examines investment protection mechanisms under Russia’s national and international investment obligations.
The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union
Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics and Energy Paths of China and the European Union is the follow-on study to the well-received The Globalization of Energy: China and the European Union (Brill 2010). While intensive cooperation between China and the EU in the fields of energy use, environmental protection, and sustainability is highly needed, the question remains unanswered how this cooperation could be organized. Since the proven gas and oil reserves lay outside China and the EU, they are both facing geopolitical challenges to energy security in the foreseeable future. This volume puts the geopolitical implementation of China’s and the EU’s energy security into the context of (a) geo-economic systems in a global scale including the Central Eurasian, the Middle East and Africa hydrocarbon energy complex and (b) the emergence of a geo-economic energy network spreading from China to Western Europe. The edited volume consists of 14 high-quality papers on topics announced in the title of the volume: the geo-politics of energy-supply security, alternative sources of energy, energy transition and, at the global level, energy governance.

Prof. Dr. Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer,
Director Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel,
Forschungs-und Studienstätte für Europäische Kulturgeschichte
Volume 3, Selected Documents
This three-volume work is concerned with the rules of international law governing the exploitation of the energy and mineral resources to be found on and under the sea-bed.
Volume 3 complements the previous two volumes by making available a selection of the principal documents referred to in volume 1 The Continental Shelf and volume 2 Sea-Bed Mining. The documents are arranged in three Parts. Part 1 includes document on the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone; Part 2 covers the United Nations regime for the Area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, including the landmark Mining Code adopted in July 2000; and Part 3 has a selection of national legislation on sea-bed mining and related co-ordinating treaties. Also included is a table showing the status, as at 1 October 2000, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 and the 1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of the UN Convention.
This volume will be a useful practical tool for academics, practitioners, and policy-makers concerned with the legal regime governing sea-bed energy and minerals and presents a carefully selected set of documents indispensable for a full understanding of the regimes analysed in the earlier volumes.
Volume 1, The Continental Shelf
This first book in a three-volume work on Sea-Bed Energy and Minerals: The International Legal Regime is concerned with the law governing the exploitation of energy and mineral resources in two quite different sub-marine areas. Volume 1 deals with the areas within the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, all of the submarine areas extending from the coast to the seaward limit of the continental shelf. As its subtitle indicates, this volume is predominantly concerned with The Continental Shelf.
Although the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has still not entered into force, and, indeed, may not do so for many years for some of the major maritime powers, its adoption in 1982 did, nonetheless, usher in a period of relative stability in the rules governing the areas within national jurisdiction, including, in particular, the continental shelf. However, being the creatures of compromise, some of its rules are undeniably vague and it has been left to State practice and international courts and tribunals to develop these rules further, especially those relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf between neighbouring States.
Volume 1 provides an analysis of the rules of conventional and custromary law in the light of this practice.
Volume 2, on Sea-Bed Mining, deals with the area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, the submarine area lying seaward of the outer limit of the continental shelf. Volume 3, which will be published at the same time as Volume 2, will provide Documents, Tables and Bibliography relating to the subject matter of the first two volumes.
Legal Tools to Confront Interdisciplinary Challenges
Confronted with today’s global interdisciplinary challenges, international economic law offers a myriad of legal tools to provide both procedural and substantive solutions. Frontiers of International Economic Law: Legal Tools to Confront Interdisciplinary Challenges will appeal to those interested in the general theory of international economic law, but also readers looking for innovative answers to practical questions will also be pleased to find a broad array of topics structured along four frontier themes: facing economic crises and uncertainties, confronting environmental challenges, considering human rights and development objectives, and finally, regulating energy transit and new technologies. The contributions presented here will help to push forward, through promoting and developing the rule of law, the – at times contentious – frontiers of international economic law.
The economic health of the global economy is directly tied to international energy policies, and none are more important than those of Russia, which is now the world’s largest petroleum export nation. At the same time, oil and gas are finite resources and new sources of supply must be found. It is certain that the Arctic will be one of the areas of greatest interest. Wherever the energy resource originates, the law of the sea regime will be critical in the movement from source to market. Thus, this book on International Energy Policy, the Arctic and the Law of the Sea is especially timely. The content is based on presentations made in St. Petersburg, Russia in June, 2004. The perspectives of Russia, China and the United States are discussed in depth by some of the world’s foremost authorities. The special significance of the Caspian Sea routes for export and the consequences of the opening of a Northwest Passage due to global warming are among the unique issues covered in this volume.
Balancing Private and Public Interests
Foreign investments in the energy sector raise formidable legal questions, often requiring a delicate balance between private and public interests of the various stakeholders.

Foreign Investment in the Energy Sector: Balancing Private and Public Interests opens with a discussion of the legal protection of foreign investment in the main segments of the energy sector (namely oil, gas, mining and hydroelectric industry), both in substantive and procedural terms. This second part of the book focuses on the Energy Charter Treaty, by far the most important international legal instrument in the energy sector, and its future after the decision of the Russian Federation not to ratify it.

In its third part, the book examines four critical areas that are often negatively concerned by economic activities by multinational in the energy sector, namely compliance with safety and labour standards, protection of the environment, respect of indigenous peoples rights, and protection of public health.

Foreign Investment in the Energy Sector: Balancing Private and Public Interests, a comprehensive collection of essays from experts and practitioners, offers an important new resource to the field.