Mental disability has come of age as a subject of concern under the European Convention on Human Rights. It was only in 1979 that the first significant decision of the ECHR was decided on the subject, and after that, cases were relatively few for many years. It is only recently that this has begun to change. This volume provides an account of where the law currently stands and speculation as to how it may develop. The initial chapters deal with substantive aspects of Convention rights (including issues of detention in institutions, conditions within institutions, medical treatment, problems associated with guardianship and others). The final two chapters move to discuss the practicalities of litigation. The book concludes with a number of appendices (primarily the primary international legal materials of relevance to mental disability rights under the ECHR, and the relevant recommendations and principles from the Council of Europe). It is hoped that this volume, in addition to shedding light on where the law currently stands, will offer practical guidance to lawyers concerning the mechanics of representing people with mental disabilities.
Throughout Europe, the exercise of justice rests on judicial independence by impartiality. In
Reason and Fairness Ulrike Müßig reveals the combination of ordinary judicial competences with procedural rationality, together with the complementarity of procedural and substantive justice, as the foundation for the ‘rule of law’ in court constitution, far earlier than the advent of liberal constitutionalism. The ECHR fair trial guarantee reads as the historically-grown consensus of the functional judicial independence. Both before historical and contemporary courts, justice is done and seen to be done by means of judgements, whose legal requirements combine the equation of ‘fair’ and ‘legal’ with that of ‘legal’ and ‘rational.’ This legal determinability of the judge’s fair attitude amounts to the specific (rational) European idea of justice.
Collective cultural rights are commonly perceived as the most neglected or least developed category of human rights.
Cultural Rights as Collective Rights – An International Law Perspective endeavours to challenge this view and offers a comprehensive, critical analysis of recent developments in distinct areas of international law and jurisprudence, from every region of the world, in relation to the scope, legal content, and enforceability of such rights.
Leading international scholars explore the conceptualisation and operationalisation of collective cultural rights as human rights, encompassing community rights, and discuss the ways in which such rights may collide with other, mostly individual, human rights. As such,
Cultural Rights as Collective Rights – An International Law Perspective offers a cross-cutting and original overview on how the protection, recognition and enforcement of collective cultural rights affect the development, changes and formation of general international law norms.
This challenging volume contains articles by a wide variety of well-known scholars and practitioners, and deals with human rights, international humanitarian law, international criminal law and humanitarian assistance, as well as other areas of international law relating to the protection of humanity. These are topics to which Flavia Lattanzi, in whose honour the volume is being published, has made an outstanding contribution and to which she has given her determined and unrelenting professional and personal commitment. As a former Professor at the Universities of Pisa, Sassari, Teramo and Roma Tre and as Judge
ad litem at the International Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, she has adhered constantly to a number of important principles, as reflected in the research contained in this volume. They include the firm conviction that respect for human rights is an indispensable precondition for durable peace; the notion that grave breaches of human rights, including the refusal to provide assistance to populations in distress, can imply a threat to international peace and security; and that guarantees against human rights violations include the question of the punishment of core crimes under International Law.
This book addresses the increased role and standing of international law in the Russian legal system through analysis of judicial practice since the adoption of the Russian Constitution in 1993. The issue of interaction and hierarchy between international and domestic law within the Russian Federation is studied, combining theoretical, legal and institutional elements.
Sergey Marochkin explores how methods for incorporating and implementing international law (or reasons for failing to do so) have changed over time, influenced by internal and global policy. The final sections of the book are the most illustrative, examining how 'the rule of law’ remains subordinate to ‘the rule of politics’, both at the domestic and global level.
EU Environmental Law, International Environmental Law, and Human Rights Law: The Case of Environmental Responsibility, Armelle Gouritin offers a critical appraisal of EU environmental responsibility law and asserts a new rights-based approach to international environmental law. This book addresses environmental damage, environmental harm, the grounds for environmental responsibility and the exceptions to the responsibility principle. A critical appraisal of EU Directives 2004/35 and 2008/99 is complemented by an analysis of the input of the European Court on Human Rights and international environmental law with a view to filling the gaps identified in the Directives. Gouritin offers a full analysis of the potential and limits of the rights-based approach applied to environmental responsibility.
In recent years, the question of whether and to what extent states are bound by human rights treaty obligations when they act abroad has given rise to considerable debate in academic circles, courtrooms and military operations. Focusing on treaties considerably jeopardized during the ‘war on terror’, namely the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention against Torture,The Extraterritorial Application of Selected Human Rights Treaties takes stock of the key developments informing the discussion to date. Together with the wording of treaties, critical analysis is made of the ensuing interpretation of treaty provisions by monitoring bodies and states parties. A way forward in this debate is suggested, accommodating conflicting interests while preserving the effective protection of basic rights.
The law of immunity of states, of international organisations, and of public officials is one of the most important and most controversial topics of international law. The book consists of five parts: ‘State Immunity – National Practice’; State Immunity before the ICJ – The case Germany v Italy; ‘Commercial Activities and State Immunity’; ‘Immunity and Impunity’; and ‘Immunities of International Organisations’.
Although immunities are in principle firmly anchored in international law, their precise legal implications are often unclear. The book takes up a number of new trends and challenges in this field and assesses them within the framework of global constitutionalism and multilevel governance.
This volume gathers the contributions of leading researchers in the fields of bioethics, medical law and human rights. By providing an interdisciplinary reading of advance directives regulation against the background of European and International law, this book aims to offer new insights into the most controversial legal issues surrounding the theme of dignity and autonomy at the end of life. Cross-cultural perspectives from Europe, the Americas, Australia and China offer a comparative analysis of legal approaches to end-of-life decision-making and care, including the hotly debated issues of euthanasia and assisted suicide, also giving an account of recent developments in domestic legislation and jurisprudence. Special focus is placed on the Italian legal system and its ongoing discussion on advance directives regulation.
Criminal Jurisdiction over Perpetrators of Ship-Source Pollution: International Law, State Practice and EU Harmonisation provides a thorough analysis of criminal jurisdiction over the perpetrators of ship-source pollution. Criminal sanctions for discharge violations committed by sea-going vessels represent an issue of critical concern in the field of International Law, given the many devastating pollution cases which have occurred at sea, and the multitude of complications inherent in the criminal prosecution of the perpetrators of these pollution cases. The varying substantive and geographical reach of any given State’s criminal law poses unique challenges in prosecution, addressed in a comprehensive discussion which includes limitations posed by the UN Law of the Sea Convention. Additionally, consequences arising from the potential conflict between the EU harmonization measures within the field, and UNCLOS are detailed in the monograph.
Lawyers, academics, and legal researchers, will appreciate Criminal Jurisdiction over Perpetrators of Ship-Source Pollution: International Law, State Practice and EU Harmonisation as a thorough source of information on the existing rules and practice in criminal cases involving pollution violations from ships.