This study investigates the origins of the concept of "the best of all possible worlds". It exemplifies the character of modern metaphysics, which thinks mainly in terms of freedom and possibility. The book contains three parts. The first part tries to reconstruct this concept both historically and systematically; it deals with the concept of possibility beginning with High Scholasticism. The second part investigates the origins of this idea in the Jesuit theory of "scientia media", which is concerned with human freedom and divine foreknowledge. The third part deals with the question, whether there is any necessity to choose the best - a main theme in late scholastic thought of the 17th century.
This investigation of a concept unknown before the time of Leibniz, reveals many new sources and fills a gap in the history of ideas.
Comment participer à ce que la vie a de divin – si on ne croit plus en Dieu ? Comment lui donner une signification, si on la sent privée du fondement ontologique qui autrefois lui garantissait sa cohérence? Que deviennent enfin l’
espérance, et surtout la
charité, dans un monde où la
foi ne semble plus praticable ? Voici les questions que ce livre propose d’aborder, en étudiant cinq réponses apportées par la poésie moderne à la crise métaphysique qu’elle se voit contrainte d’affronter. Celle de Baudelaire, dont le rapport à la tradition chrétienne est resté profondément ambigu. Celle de Rimbaud, dont le projet poétique a remis en cause cette tradition au nom d’une réinvention de l’amour et d’une réintégration de l’être. Celle de Claudel, seul à avoir vécu la foi sans équivoque, mais au prix d’un refus péremptoire de bien des aspects de la pensée moderne. Celles, pour finir, de Louis-René des Forêts et d’Yves Bonnefoy, conscients l’un et l’autre de venir « après les dieux », ce dernier pourtant voulant identifier poésie et espoir, et affirmant avec insistance que « l’acte vraiment
moderne est de vouloir fonder une vie ‘divine’ sans Dieu ».
In a collection of essays spanning some 35 years, Luke Timothy Johnson takes on some of the most contested issues in the study of Christian Origins and the New Testament --- from the historical Jesus and the Jesus of the Gospels, through exegetical studies of Luke-Acts and Paul, to questions pertaining to the development of early Christian history, relations with Judaism, the uses of polemic, sexuality, and law.
Johnson's work is characterized by close attention to texts and a concern for methodological rigor. Far from representing scholarly consensus, these essays consistently display independence of judgment, whether concerning the authorship of Paul's disputed letters, the legitimacy of the quest for the historical Jesus, or the toxic character of some early Christian texts.
The Text of Marcion’s Gospel Dieter T. Roth offers a new, critical reconstruction of Marcion’s Gospel including various levels of certainty for readings in this Gospel text. An extensive history of research, overview of both attested and unattested verses in the various sources, and methodological considerations related, in particular, to understanding the citation customs of the sources set the stage for a comprehensive analysis of all relevant data concerning Marcion’s Gospel. On the basis of this new reconstruction significant issues in the study of early Christianity, including the relationship between Marcion’s Gospel and Luke and the place of Marcion in the history of the canon and the formation of the fourfold Gospel, can be considered anew.
This volume is the result of a conference, held at Manchester in July 2010, on processes of integration and identity formation in the Roman Republic. This book focuses especially on day-to-day contexts in which Romans and Italians interacted, which are essential for understanding long-term developments. The book discusses settlement patterns (e.g. Roman colonies), the Roman army, and the administration of Italy, as well as the long-term consequences of contact, such as growing social and economic networks, linguistic, religious, and cultural changes, transformations of identity in Rome and Italy, and demands for Roman citizenship by Italians. It combines new archaeological evidence with literary and epigraphic evidence, and thus gives an overview of current research on integration and identity in the Roman Republic.
This book presents a new theory about the developments in shipping and naval organization that culminated in the invention - around 530 BC in the eastern Mediterranean - of the trireme, and the subsequent adoption of this first specialized warship of antiquity by all the naval powers of the time.
New interpretations are proposed of Greek and Assyrian iconographic data and of hitherto ignored evidence in Herodotos and Thukydides, the non-military factors determining developments are emphasized. Thukydides' fundamental essay on the genesis of Greek sea-powers is studied in depth, the rarity of these sea-powers stressed, and the peculiar background of the naval power of Phokaia and the Samian tyrant Polykrates exposed. The problem of the trireme's place of origin, the factors determining its invention, probably in Saïte Egypt, and its immediate adoption by the Persian king Kambyses are discussed. The first naval operations of the Persians are surveyed, reasons and circumstances of the trireme's introduction into the navies of the Greek city-states analysed with special attention for Themistokles' navy bill.
The book offers ancient historians and classical philologists a radically new approach to archaic maritime and naval history. It will also be useful to (nautical) archaeologists.
These days no one believes in the redemptive essence of history (Lyotard). The individual of today lives without culture, history, social engagement and moral norms (Lasch). It is in this intellectual climate that
History as a Theological Issue has been written.
Nico Bakker analyses seminal conceptions of history from the past and from our day, and compares them with the newest notions of history in biblical and systematic theology. In so doing he engages in conversation with thinkers from Augustine to Popper, along with many others. His thinking is informed in particular by the work of Barth, Pannenberg, and the Dutch reformed theologians Miskotte and Breukelman.
Of central significance is his ability to apply basic theological notions to culture. In this way he connects the present-day crisis of culture with the permanent alienation of church and Christianity from its own origins in the scriptures. Now that since the 1950s a new awareness structure is beginning to emerge (Gebser), the author considers that theology is in need of a radical rethink.
History as a Theological Issue is written primarily for theologians, historians, biblical critics and philosophers of religion and is recommended reading for all who are seriously interested in the present-day crisis of culture and in the widespread alienation from the Bible, Church and Christianity.