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In recent years the resort to trade restrictions for purposes of environmental policy has given rise to an increasing number of international dispute settlement proceedings, both on the world-wide level in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the newly established World Trade Organisation, and on the regional level in the European Community and among the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
The present work discusses the evolution of trade law in the global and regional context and analyzes and compares the different world-wide and regional approaches to the various interface problems of trade and environmental policies. The book includes in an annex a selection of the most important provisions, reports and court cases.
The Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations forms part of the Hague Academy of International Law, and operates under the authority of its managing board and within the framework of its teaching. The Centre was established to further in-depth research in the area of International Law. The topic for 1991 was The Legal Implications of 1993 for Member and Non-Member Countries of the EC.
The content of this volume includes:- The Present State of Research Carried Out By the English-Speaking Section of The Centre for Studies and Research, by Alan Dashwood. - Bilan de recherches de la Section de langue française du Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche de l'Académie, par Daniel Vignes. - Annex. List of Participants and Subjects Treated. - Annexe. Liste de participants et sujets traités.
European Experiences, Threat Perceptions and Policies
The shocking events of 11 September 2001 in the United States drew worldwide attention to the terrorist phenomenon. Confronting Terrorism focuses on terrorism and the struggle against it in Europe: on recent experiences, threat perceptions and the policies of several European countries, including the effects produced by the 11 September attacks.
Specialists from Ireland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Greece analyse the development of threat perceptions concerning terrorism and counter-terrorist policy-making in their respective countries. To facilitate comparisons between their findings, they have worked from an identical set of questions. Their chapters are followed by contributions on relevant policy-making and decisions in the European Union, and on the European input in United Nations policy-making processes. A summary of main conclusions and recommendations is also presented.
The Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations forms part of the Hague Academy of International Law, and operates under the authority of its managing board and within the framework of its teaching. The Centre was established to further in-depth research in the area of international law. The topic for 1993 was Les risques résultant de l'utilisation pacifique de l'énergie nucléaire/The Hazards Arising out of the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy.
The contents of this volume include: Bilan de recherches de la section de langue française du Centre d'Étude et de Recherche de l'Académie, par Pierre STROHL, ancien directeur général adjoint de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, Paris The Present State of Research carried out by the English speaking Section of the Centre for Studies and Research, by Norbert PELZER, Senior Academic Counsellor, University of Göttingen.
A Compilation of International Instruments
Human rights law protects the rights and freedoms of individuals and groups within societies. Police officials are uniquely placed to ensure respect for, and secure protection of, those rights and freedoms. Those who exercise power on behalf of the people they serve need to be aware of the human rights standards they are required to meet, and the best practice in their fields of activity. The texts identified as essential for the police in this publication serve as a valuable aid to meeting both of these needs. The present compilation of international human rights instruments is a significant addition to the small, but increasing, number of publications on human rights and policing.
Essential Texts on Human Rights for the Police is divided into three parts, each one with an introduction outlining the scope and contents of the instruments. Part I includes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and universal treaties, Part II regional treaties, and Part III non-treaty instruments. In all, 24 international instruments are reproduced.
The present publication is intended to be used in human rights education and training programmes for police and other officials exercising police powers. It can be used by teachers and resource persons as a principal source of reference for such programmes or as a supplement to teaching manuals. It can also serve as a source of reference and guidance to operational police officials and to anyone wishing to be aware of the standards to which police should adhere.
Essential Texts on Human Rights for the Police is published in cooperation with the Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, and the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law.
This book is based on a meeting, held in Geneva from 27 February to 1 March 1995, which challenged the fundamental conceptions behind the original United Nations by launching an entirely new Charter, written by Maurice Bertrand, for a worldwide organization which could replace the UN, the Bretton Woods organizations and the specialised agencies.
The `Bertrand Proposal', the written commentaries which emphasize different aspects of the proposal, and a summary of the discussions are published in this book. The `Bertrand Proposal' is a major contribution to future research and analysis of international organization and organizations and to the attempts to resolve the present crisis of the international system. The book concludes that since the type of threats against peace, economic security and social development have changed, and the international community has not formulated an adequate response, it is up to a worldwide organization to try to organize the prevention of crises and conflicts.
This book confronts the letter and spirit of international law, its norms and institutions, as well as their interaction with the life of peoples, nations and States in all their cultural diversity.
The exercise consists of de-compartmentalising the analysis of international law, which today concerns all aspects of daily life, and nourishing this analysis with human realities.
International law is presented both as a method and as a message that is rooted in universal values.
Beyond the formal aspects of this discipline, this book seeks to grasp the fundamental meaning of international law in order to assess its relevance and its limitations.
This book focuses on the issues that are disrupting international law today rather than on the well-established aspects of this field.
Editor: Gerald Simpson
This book was originally researched by the author for the Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group. The aim was to analyse the Palestinian High Court's judgments ordering the Palestinian Authority to release Palestinian political prisoners whose penal procedural rights - together with the High Court's judgments - have been disregarded by the Palestinian Authority since 1996.
With a view to providing practical recommendations to all parties responsible, the book includes the following features: - an introduction to the political and legal contexts and an independent summary analysing the findings of the research; - tables presenting all High Court cases dealing with Palestinian political prisoners detained in the Palestinian Territories handed down between 30 November 1997 and 13 June 2000; - 17 translations and analyses of pleadings to and judgments of the High Court; - transcripts of interviews with High Court judges and lawyers; - summaries and translations of applicable penal procedural law in force in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank; - a full new translation of the Draft Palestinian Judicial Authority Law; - presentation and analysis of provisions of the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreements relating to criminal and security jurisdiction in the Palestinian Territories.
The Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations forms part of the Hague Academy of International Law, and operates under the authority of its managing board and within the framework of its teaching. The Centre was established to further in-depth research in the area of international law. The topic for 1997 was L'organisation mondiale du commerce/The World Trade Organization.
The contents of this volume include: - Bilan de recherches de la section de langue française du Centre d'Étude et de Recherche de l'Académie, par Dominique CARREAU et Patrick JUILLARD, directeurs d'études, professeurs à la faculté de droit de l'Université de Paris I, anciens directeurs du départment de droit international. - The Present State of Research carried out by the English speaking Section of the Centre for Studies and Research, by Paolo MENGOZZI, Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities, Professor of International and EC Law, Law Faculty, University of Bologna. - Annexe. Liste des participants et sujets traités. - Annex. List of Participants and Subjects Treated.
Editor: Daniel Warner
This work brings together the papers presented at a conference on `New Dimensions of Peacekeeping' which was convened at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in March 1994. The papers address the new role of peacekeeping (including peacekeeping and peace enforcement) which is now emerging and also places an emphasis upon the role of the `newcomers' in peacekeeping, specifically Japan and Germany. The collection of papers, by many distinguished scholars in the field, actively discusses both the strengths and weaknesses of the United Nations peacekeeping efforts in meeting the increasing demands placed upon it due to the enormous upsurge in ethnic, religious and other local conflicts.

`The 1990s have seen wide swings in public opinion towards United Nations Peacekeeping. The euphoria and high expectations regarding what the United Nations can deliver have been replaced by the rude shocks and deflated assessments of its capacity to successfully cope with conflicts. In this context, it would be highly desirable that a judicious balance be struck in the evaluation of United Nations peacekeeping activities, which takes fully into account the great potential they have for contributing to international peace and security and to the reduction of human suffering. At the same time, such a review should include a candid discussion regarding the weaknesses and shortcomings of peacekeeping activities. '
(Excerpt from the Introduction by Yasushi Akashi, Chief of Mission of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the former Yugoslavia)