This comparative examination of Value Added Taxes worldwide covers both theory and practice and is intended for an audience of students, teachers, researchers, government officials, and practitioners. The authors are American law professors, both teachers of courses on VAT and long time members of the ABA's Committee on Value Added Tax (recently the Committee on Alternative Tax Systems).
The book begins with an extensive survey of VAT principles as enunciated during the second half of the twentieth century in official reports and by economists and other tax authorities. Included are basic statistical data and an appendix delineating the global spread of the tax together with rates in the year 2000. Thereafter, the authors present the legal concepts and definitions displayed in VAT laws and elaborated by the courts of Europe and New Zealand. Comparison is made from time to time with American experience with state retail sales taxes. Application of VATs to particular activities is examined in separate chapters devoted to banking, insurance, real estate, and nonprofit organizations. Particular attention is paid to cross-border situations whether international, within the European Union and other country groupings, or within federal countries. The special problems of telecommunications, transportation and E-commerce are covered together in one chapter.
A feature of the book of particular use to practitioners as well as students and scholars is an appendix of more than 100 pages, which sets forth the consolidated text of the European Union's famous Sixth Directive. It serves as the governing statutory document for the VATs in EU member countries and is the subject of interpretation and application in many of the litigated cases included or referred to in the book.
Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.
Le droit de l’arbitrage, plus encore que le droit international privé, se prête à une réflexion de philosophie du droit. Les notions, essentiellement philosophiques, de volonté et de liberté sont au coeur de la matière. La liberté des parties de préférer aux juridictions étatiques une forme privée de règlement des différends, de choisir leur juge, de forger la procédure qui leur paraît la plus appropriée, de déterminer les règles de droit applicables au différend, quitte à ce qu’il s’agisse de normes autres que celles d’un système juridique donné, la liberté des arbitres de se prononcer sur leur propre compétence, de fixer le déroulement de la procédure et, dans le silence des parties, de choisir les normes applicables au fond du litige, soulèvent autant de questions de légitimité.
Le présent ouvrage s’attache à identifier les postulats philosophiques qui sous-tendent la matière, à montrer leur profonde cohérence et les conséquences pratiques qui en découlent dans la résolution des grands contentieux du commerce international.
International trade is conducted mainly under the rules of the World Trade Organization. Its non-discrimination rules are of fundamental importance. In essence, they require WTO members not to discriminate amongst products of other WTO members in trade matters (the most favoured- nation rule) and, subject to permitted market-access limitations, not to discriminate against products of other WTO members in favour of domestic products (the national treatment rule). The interpretation of these rules is quite difficult. Their reach is potentially so broad that it has been felt that they should be limited by a number of exceptions, some of which also present interpretative difficulties. Indeed, one of the principal conundrums faced by WTO dispute settlement is how to strike the appropriate balance between the rules and exceptions. Davey explores the background and justification for the non-discrimination rules and examines how the rules and the exceptions have been interpreted in WTO dispute settlement. He gives considerable attention to whether the exceptions give sufficient discretion to WTO members to pursue their legitimate non-trade policy goals.