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Image into Identity

Constructing and Assigning Identity in a Culture of Modernity

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Edited by Michael Wintle

The pervading theme of this book is the construction and allocation of identity, especially through images and imagery. The essays analyse how the dominant social discourses and imageries construct identity or assign subject positions in relation to the categories of race, nation, region, gender and language. The volume is designed to inform the study of those categories in cultural studies, sociology, anthropology, gender studies, literary studies, philosophy and history. Its coverage is geographically global, multidisciplinary, and theoretically eclectic, but also accessible. The authors include both established and rising scholars from historical, literary, media, gender and cultural studies. This innovative collection will appeal to all those who are interested in the mechanisms of constructing and evolving personal and group identities, in past and present.

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Carmen Ana Pont

Les Songes et les sorts, réponse yourcenarienne au journal intime, a été jusqu'à ce jour presque oublié par la critique. Le présent ouvrage comble cette lacune en démontrant que la teneur autobiographique et le style de ces transcriptions oniriques, qui accompagnèrent Yourcenar pendant un demi-siècle, illuminent l'ensemble de son œuvre. Car le rêve rencontre la double poétique de l'aveu yourcenarien: le désir de se cacher et celui de se raconter. La stratégie de l'ambiguïté, qui découle de ce paradoxe, brouille l'histoire du songe et celle de l'auteur, efface les limites du texte littéraire par le biais de l'intertextualité, et confond rêve et vie, réel et imaginaire, écrivain et personnage.
Ainsi, le songe, thème, acte, style, langage, métaphore et prétexte, ouvre un univers de correspondances où romantisme, baroque et mythologie se joignent aux mythes personnels de l'auteur pour nous dévoiler quelques secrets et pièges de l'écriture. Oscillant entre l'image de l'écrivain qui met en scène la mort symbolique de l'amour ( Songes de 1938), et celle du créateur vieilli qui redoute la mort physique de l'être aimé (Dossier de 1991), cette étude nous révèle une Yourcenar fragile et inattendue, qui rêve pour résister et faire face à sa propre mortalité.

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Edited by Walter Schönau and Henk Hillenaar

Who of us, as a child, has not dreamed of having other parents: a gentler mother, a kinder or stronger father, a more illustrious family? According to our secret dreams, were not most of us born sons or daughters of a king, a president, a champion? Freud termed this the Family Romance. We all carry these secret scenarios in ourselves. Usually they are long forgotten but nevertheless remain alive in the stories we tell ourselves and relate to others. Therefore the Family Romance is one of the keys to the understanding of literature. The French literary critic Marthe Robert developed in an original way this simple but fundamental theory of Freud. In 1972 she presented in her now famous publication Origins of the Novel a new method to analyse the novel and to understand its history. Her study offers such a convincing and lively proof of the relevance of Freud's views that it still invites us to expand on its ideas and suggestions, to elaborate, develop and, if necessary, correct them. It is in this perspective that the authors of this volume write about the historical and mythical figures Mary, Medea, Electra, Kaspar Hauser and Sir Gawain. Other articles are devoted to the Family Romance in the works of the following authors: Barthes, Beckett, Camus, Drieu la Rochelle, Faulkner, Flaubert, Goethe, Claire Goll, Gombrowicz, Greene, Kafka, Lévy, Modiano, Petronius, Sartre, Vigny.

George Sand lue à l'étranger

Récherches nouvelles 3. Actes du Colloque. George Sand hors de France. Amsterdam, juin 1994

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Edited by Suzan van Dijk

`George Sand hors de France': ainsi s'intitula le colloque que l'an dernier nous avions organisé en l'honneur de Françoise van Rossum-Guyon, fondatrice et présidente du Groupe de Recherches sur George Sand. Elle quittait alors l'Université d'Amsterdam pour retourner à Paris. Ce fut un moment tout indiqué pour réfléchir sur l'influence qu'a exercée aux Pays-Bas l'oeuvre de George Sand - romancière qui avait été si souvent sujet des cours et des publications de Françoise van Rossum-Guyon, et dont elle a certainement contribué - directement et indirectement - à augmenter le public actuel.
En présentant les actes de ce Colloque d'Amsterdam, nous les relions explicitement aux deux précédents recueils, rédigés par Françoise van Rossum-Guyon: Recherches nouvelles et Recherches nouvelles 2. Le second volume portait comme titre: George Sand: une oeuvre multiforme. Cette `multiformité', mise en évidence par les analyses des textes sandiens, sera suggérée d'une autre façon dans le présent recueil. En effet, par le biais de l'empirie l'histoire de la réception permet elle aussi d'éclairer la richesse de cette oeuvre. Dans la diversité de réactions que suscitaient hors de France les écrits de George Sand, nous nous attachons bien sûr particulièrement à celles provenant de ses contemporains néerlandais: à les inventorier et surtout à les faire comprendre. Ce faisant nous présentons les premiers résultats d'une recherche à laquelle se sont attelées plusieurs membres de notre Groupe.

Jeering Dreamers

Villiers de l’Isle-Adam’s L’Eve Future at our Fin de Siècle

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Edited by John Anzalone

The re-emergence in recent years of Villiers de l'Isle-Adam as a key figure in fin de siècle literature can be attributed in large part to the intense interest his prescient l' Eve future (1886) has generated among scholars. In effect, the novel confronts with breathtaking focus central taboos and ambivalences about the decadent period. It posits an inescapable, mechanistic linkage between desire and technology; it suggests the constructed nature of gender; it casts woman down so as to exalt her, even as it intimates the arbitrariness and fragility of the empowerment prerogatives implicit in such an operation. It is this mine for the study of fin de siècle mentalities that the present volume explores.
Begun at the 1992 NCFS colloquium at Binghamton University as a collective project of the Friends of Villiers, Jeering Dreamers brings together 13 essays by Villiers scholars from both sides of the Atlantic. Their work promises, in the words of the eminent Villièrien Alan Raitt, to 'Éclairer l'Eve future d'un jour nouveau-ou, plus exactement, de plusieurs jours nouveaux.

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Helen Vassallo and Cathy Wardle

L’activité littéraire de Jeanne Hyvrard ne reste plus à présenter : de Les prunes de Cythère, Mère la mort, Les doigts du figuier jusqu’à Canal de la Toussaint, La pensée corps, Cellla, Le fichu écarlate et bien au-delà, la voix de Jeanne Hyvrard, émouvante et ferme, terriblement ancrée et radieusement visionnaire, est parvenue à fonder, sans conteste, une des grandes œuvres de notre temps. Les dialogues que présente ce livre interrogent avec une chaleureuse intelligence le cheminement de la pensée qui sous-tend l’aventure ontologique exceptionnelle de cette œuvre et cherchent à pénétrer dans les secrets et les clartés de ses parfois déroutantes mais toujours exaltantes beautés.

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Marcella De Marco

The past decades have witnessed considerable developments in Translation Studies and, particularly, a growing interest in the cultural and ideological differences engendered by the act of translating. More recently, Audiovisual Translation has also experienced an impressive growth in terms of research developments and applications. This book focuses on the role that cinematic language and audiovisual translation play in the transmission of stereotypes concerning gender, sexuality, ethnicity and economic status. While it helps identify the gender bias embedded in language and how this is then manipulated during the dubbing transfer, this book also addresses other considerations such as the role of the audiovisual translators, the triggers which reinforce the androcentric views already present in films, and the influence on the translators of ideological and political constraints. For this reason it is of interest to both the academic community and the wider public who may still be the target of gender discrimination themselves and/or are sensitive to gender issues.

Women without a Past?

German Autobiographical Writings and Fascism

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Joanne Sayner

Who remembers, and how? Debates about the role of memory as history – and of literature as memory – have increasingly come to fascinate those interested in how we look at our pasts as a means for understanding the present. Women without a Past? brings together for the first time autobiographies written by seven women who experienced Nazism from different perspectives: Elfriede Brüning, Hilde Huppert, Greta Kuckhoff, Elisabeth Langgässer, Melita Maschmann, Inge Scholl, and Grete Weil. Their autobiographies provoke diverse and challenging answers to questions about who remembers what, when, where, how and on behalf of whom.
This book foregrounds the positive political potential of re-reading well-known texts and seeking out reasons why others have been marginalized. It examines autobiography as a form of writing at the very centre of contemporary debates on the ‘self’, ‘truth’ and ‘history’. Women without a Past? offers new insights into the politics of memory and autobiography, and will be of particular interest to researchers and students engaging with women’s writing and memories of Nazism.

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Joe Andrew

The present volume has as its primary aim readings, from a feminist perspective, of a number of works from Russian literature published over the period in which the ‘woman question’ rose to the fore and reached its peak. All the works considered here were produced in, or hark back to, a fairly narrowly defined period of not quite 20 years (1846-1864) in which issues of gender, of male and female roles were discussed much more keenly than in perhaps any other period in Russian literature.
The overall project is summed up by the three key words of this book’s title, narrative, space and gender, and, especially, the interconnections between them. That is, what do the way these stories were told tell us about gender identities in mid-nineteenth-century Russia? Which spaces were central to these fictional worlds? Which spaces suggested which gender identities? The discussions therefore focus on issues of narrative and space, and how they acted as ‘technologies of gender’.
This volume will be of interest to all interested in nineteenth-century Russian literature, as well as students of gender, and of the semiotics of narrative space.

The Female Crusoe

Hybridity, Trade and the Eighteenth-Century Individual

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C.M. Owen

What does the story of Robinson Crusoe have to do with understanding past and present women’s lives? The Female Crusoe: Hybridity, Trade and the Eighteenth-Century Individual investigates the possibility that Daniel Defoe’s famous work was informed by qualities attributed to trade, luxury and credit and described as feminine in the period. In this volume, Robinson Crusoe and the female castaway narratives published in its wake emerge as texts of social criticism that draw on neglected values of race and gender to challenge the dominant values of society. Such narratives worked to establish status and authority for marginalised characters and subjects who were as different, and as similar, as Defoe’s gentleman-tradesman and Wollstonecraft’s independent woman. The Female Crusoe goes on to address the twentieth-century engagement with the castaway tale, showing how three contemporary authors, in their complex and gendered negotiations of power and identity, echo, even while they challenge, the concerns of their eighteenth-century predecessors. This work will be of interest to students interested in literary engagements with individualism and women’s rights in the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.