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The harmonization of the different European legal systems has reached the field of asylum and immigration policy. The Maastricht Treaty has established the legal basis for a common migration policy. Numerous resolutions, recommendations, joint positions and actions were adopted by the EU Council based on the `third pillar' in the Maastricht Treaty. Within the `first pillar' the European Community has enacted regulations on visa policy based on Art. 100c EC - Treaty. Additionally, several agreements with third countries on immigration issues were set into force.
Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy of the European Union comprehensively describes the present state of the harmonization process concerning migration policy in the European Union. Particular emphasis is laid on the legal status of third-country nationals with regard to entry and residence. Furthermore, the gaps within EU regulations are evaluated in an attempt to search for a homogenous European migration policy.
This introductory volume to the series of American Classics in International Law is intended to present, put into context, and critically appraise specifically American general theories of and about international law. Those frameworks of ideas include the very concept of international law, its justification, the struggle between formalism and experience, various theories of legitimacy and fairness, the law’s effectiveness, empirical analysis, critiques from the margins and the center, and approaches to its improvement. Particular focus is on American Legal Realism, the New Haven School of Jurisprudence, International and Transnational Legal Process, liberal theories of international law, linkages to social sciences, including Law and Economics, Critical Legal Studies, LatCrit, TWAIL, and feminist approaches to the discipline.
This book confronts the letter and spirit of international law, its norms and institutions, as well as their interaction with the life of peoples, nations and States in all their cultural diversity.
The exercise consists of de-compartmentalising the analysis of international law, which today concerns all aspects of daily life, and nourishing this analysis with human realities.
International law is presented both as a method and as a message that is rooted in universal values.
Beyond the formal aspects of this discipline, this book seeks to grasp the fundamental meaning of international law in order to assess its relevance and its limitations.
This book focuses on the issues that are disrupting international law today rather than on the well-established aspects of this field.
Towards an Understanding of Chinese Law, Its Nature and Developments
Law, in particular its actual functioning in any given society, is above all a part of the culture of that society - a part of its historical, political, social and intellectual creation. If a `black-letter' approach towards law in the West is under increasing criticism, it is particularly unhelpful, if not misleading, in understanding Chinese law, its nature and developments. Rather, to understand Chinese law, its nature and developments, we need to examine the Chinese legal traditions, the prevailing political and economic situations, Party policies on economic reform and tolerance towards political liberalisation, and scholarly discussions and debate. This is the approach of this book. Its aim is to put Chinese law `in context', to outline the nature and present status of its development, and to analyse the meaning of the law within the Chinese context. However, this monograph does not ignore the practical needs for determining the precise contents of the `black- letter' law either.
A study of this kind necessarily involves a process of topic selection. However, to avoid over-generalisation and over-simplification, it also demands a considerable degree of comprehensiveness in coverage. For this reason, the book covers what the Chinese scholars term `fundamental law' and `basic branches' of law, while other topics are covered because they are either crucial for the understanding of the law (such as legal traditions in China) or of practical importance (such as foreign investment and trade).
Chapter One provides an historical background to traditional Chinese `legal culture' and modern law reforms. The historical background of specific topics is examined as the topics are analysed in the following chapters. Chapter Two deals with the changing fate of law under Communist rule. Its focus is on the underlying factors and justifications for such changes. Chapter Three introduces discussions on specific branches of law, from public law (constitutional law, law-making, administrative law, criminal law, criminal procedure law) to `private' law (civil law, family law, contracts, law on business entities, and law on foreign investment and trade). Each of these is dealt with in a separate chapter. After the analysis of these substantial topics, certain conclusions are drawn, which attempt to define the nature of Chinese law and its developments in present-day China.
Dreams, Illusions and Disillusion
The hope that international adjudication will some day come to replace international aggression has long been a fond aspiration of mankind, and nowhere, perhaps, has it taken firmer root than in the United States. The U.S. Supreme Court has been held up as a model for the successful adjudication of interstate disputes and for the evolution of a body of revered legal norms. Yet America's own record vis-à-vis international adjudication and the International Court has been marked by ambivalence and a sharp dichotomy between rhetoric and deeds.
Integrating legal and historical materials and insights, Professor Pomerance examines in this volume the troubled saga of the U.S. pursuit of the `Supreme Court of the Nations' idea, from its early pre-World War I origins through the present post- Nicaragua period of U.S. reserve, disillusionment and reassessment. Spurning a `morality-play' interpretive mold, the author pays particular attention to recurrent themes and the roots of their recurrence; the specific cadences and nuances in the `grand' and lesser U.S. debates on the Court; the continuities and changes in both partners of the U.S.-Court relationship; and the various prisms through which that relationship might be viewed. In this manner, the important contemporary debate on the future contours of the U.S.-Court nexus is sharply illuminated.
Comprising 56 of the papers originally presented at the highly successful 8th World Conference of the International Society of Family held in Cardiff, UK, Families Across Frontiers provides a unique and invaluable global insight into how both the international community and individual states are attempting to deal with problems and issues raised by families crossing political and cultural frontiers. The book offers detailed consideration of many of the major international instruments affecting the family, such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the European Convention on Human Rights, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the Hague Convention on Inter-Country Abduction, the Hague and European Convention on International Child Abduction, the Hague Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Maintenance Obligation and on The Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations and on the Inter-American Convention Support Obligations.
Written by experts from 20 different nations, this book provides indispensable reading for those wishing to enhance their understanding of the increasingly important international dimension of family law.
New Hopes for International Arbitration
Editors: Sam Muller and Wim Mijs
Among the aims of the United Nations Decade of International Law is the promotion of the means and methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes between states. In the previous volume, The United Nations Decade of International Law, Reflections on International Dispute Settlement, the editors contributed to this aim by bringing together a variety of opinions by international legal experts on the topic, with an emphasis on the role of the International Court of Justice. This time, the editors turn their attention to international arbitration and the role of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. It also explores the prospects for pre-constituted, non-ad hoc arbitral institutions which may be considered in the general framework of peaceful settlement of disputes between states, as well as between states and other actors (commercial arbitration) in the present day international system, through the process of international adjudication. Like the previous volume, this book is a valuable contribution towards the promotion of the United Nations Decade of International Law.
In April 1997, during the Dutch presidency of the European Union, a three-day international conference was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on the subject of The Quality of European and National Legislation and the Internal Market. The present publication comprises the proceedings and conclusions of this timely conference, which was organized by the T.M.C. Asser Instituut, The Hague, on behalf of the Ministries of Justice and Economic Affairs of The Netherlands and the European Commission.
The objective of the conference was to suggest ways of improving the legislation in the European Union against the background of the common market. The quality of the drafting of Community legislation is crucial if it is to be properly implemented by competent national authorities and better understood by the public and in business circles.
The conference focused on European legislation and on national legislation in the Member States. Representatives of the European Union, the governments, the academic world, industry and consumer organizations gave their views of and commented on the three main themes of the conference: (I) the experiences on European and national level regarding the judicial quality of legislation; (II) simplification of existing legislation and (III) assessment of draft legislation. The updated and revised versions of their studies and comments are published in the present book. During the final session of the conference, current initiatives in the field of improving the quality of legislation were reviewed (e.g., on consolidation, codification, guidelines and deregulation).
The main findings of the conference were brought to the attention of the Internal Market Council and the IGC as a preparation of the European Council of Amsterdam (16-17 June, 1997) where the Draft Treaty of Amsterdam was concluded. Many of the conference findings and suggestions were repeated in the documents of the Draft Treaty.
In addition to the above-mentioned contributions, the book contains (i) a valuable methodical digest of the conference, including a closer evaluation of the Draft Treaty of Amsterdam, and (ii) a summing-up of the results of the important debate by Professor L.J. Brinkhorst (European Parliament, Strasbourg/Brussels). The book is also enriched by relevant documentation in the field.
WTO, OMC, these abbreviations are now well known throughout the world and the organization contained in these three-letter acronyms has become a principal actor in international relations – economic and other. Everyone knows that a large part of its impact in the international society comes from a revolutionary mechanism of dispute settlement (DSM) that forms part of the World Trade Organization. More than 250 claims have been deposited in seven years, of which sixty led to a report of an ad hoc panel and the majority of those led to a report of the Appellate Body.
This bilingual volume is the second in a series, which has the ambition to present the “jurisprudence” of this new mechanism, in a simple, coherent and systematic fashion. It is the result of intense cooperation between the two editors, and it is hoped to become a major reference work for all interested in the jurisprudence of the WTO and more general in the regulation of economic relations with respect to international commerce and all its multiple implications on daily matters.

OMC, WTO, ces sigles sont aujourd’hui mondialement connus, et l’Organisation qu’ils désignent est devenue un acteur principal des relations internationales – économiques et autres. Chacun sait désormais qu’une grande partie de son impact dans la société internationale vient du mécanisme de règlement des différends (MRD) tout à fait révolutionnaire qu’incorpore l’Organisation mondiale du commerce. Plus de 250 plaintes ont été déposées en sept ans et qu’un peu plus de 60 d’entre elles ont donné lieu à un rapport d'un Groupe spécial, voire pour une majorité d’entre elles à un rapport de l’Organe d’appel.
Ce présent volume bilingue n'est que le deuxième d'une série d'ouvrages ayant pour ambition de présenter la « jurisprudence » de ce nouveau mécanisme de façon simple, cohérente et systématique. Il constitue le fruit d'efforts concertés que les deux éditeurs, associés à cette entreprise collective de grande envergure, espèrent voir devenir une référence incontournable pour tous ceux qui s’intéresseront à la jurisprudence de l’OMC et plus largement à la régulation des relations économiques en matière de commerce international, avec toutes ses implications multiformes sur la vie quotidienne de chacun d’entre nous.
The Center for Oceans Law and Policy, University of Virginia School of Law, annually hosts a conference on a topical subject of interest to the global law of the sea community. The twenty-fifth meeting of the Center was co-sponsored by the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), and held in March 2001, at its Hamburg headquarters. The conference theme, Current Marine Environmental Issues and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, featured two days of presentations from many of the world's foremost experts. The published conference proceedings include papers by Satya N. Nandan, Secretary-General, International Seabed Authority; P. Chandrasekhara Rao, President, ITLOS; most of the ITLOS judges; and a number of private practitioners concerned with the marine environment. Topics discussed focused on the past, present, and future dispute settlement activities of ITLOS and the regulatory consequences in Europe as a result of the Erika oil spill on 12 December, 1999. Current Marine Environmental Issues and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is a significant collection of authoritative commentary, compiled through the cooperation of an academic institution and an international organization specifically dedicated to peaceful settlement of disputes in the world's oceans.