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The Role of Judicial Procedures in the Process of the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes by Mariko Kawano.

The Charter of the United Nations provides for two features of the International Court of Justice; the principal judicial organ of the UN and the institution to be chosen by the parties to an international dispute which enjoy the freedom of choice of the peaceful means to settle their dispute. Thus, while the Court has an independent and authoritative status as a judicial organ in the international community, its jurisdiction is based on the consents expressed by the sovereign States parties to a respective dispute. It should also be noted that the Court is expected to contribute to the process
of the peaceful settlement of international disputes as one of the principal organs of the UN. The present lecture discusses the roles to be played by the Court in the present international community through close and extensive examination of its jurisprudence.
Transaction Planning Using Rules on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments by Ronald A. Brand, Professor at the
University of Pittsburgh:
Private international law is normally discussed in terms of rules applied in litigation involving parties from more than one State. Those same rules are fundamentally important, however, to those who plan crossborder commercial transactions with a desire to avoid having a dispute arise — or at least to place a party in the best position possible if a dispute does arise. This makes rules regarding jurisdiction, applicable law, and the recognition and enforcement of judgments vitally important contract negotiations. It also makes the consideration of transactional interests important when developing new rules of private international law. These lectures examine rules of jurisdiction and rules of recognition and enforcement of judgments in the United States and the European Union, considering their similarities, their differences, and how they affect the transaction planning process.

The Emancipation of the Individual from the State under International Law by G. Hafner, Professor at the University of Vienna:
Present international law is marked by two different tendencies: a State oriented and an individual oriented one. Due to these two orientations, the international legal status of the individual is not unequivocally defined. The legal status of individuals widely differs depending on the particular legal order, regional, sub-regional or universal. Hence, the assertion that present international law has already endowed individuals with the status as subjects of international law must be replaced by the acknowledgement that the personality of individuals as a reflection of their emancipation from the States under international law is a relative one, depending on the particular applicable legal regime.
The Quest for World Order and Human Dignity in the Twenty-first Century: Constitutive Process and Individual Commitment. General Course on Public International Law by W. M. Reisman, Professor at the Yale Law School
International law's archipelago is composed of legal "islands", which are highly organized, and "off-shore" zones, manifesting a much lower degree of legal organization. Each requires a different mode of decision-making. This General Course is concerned, first, with understanding and assessing the aggregate performance of the world constitutive process, in present and projected constructs; second, with providing the intellectual tools that can enable those involved in making decisions to be more effective, whether they are operating in islands or off-shore; and, third, with inquiring into ways the international legal system might be improved.
The Hague Academy Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations devoted its Session of 1996 to the Succession of States, including for the second time this topic in its programme, but in a context very different from that in which the 1962 Session had been held.
Following the great wave of decolonizations, the studies conducted in the Centre in 1962 had constituted a kind of prologue to the lengthy deliberations by the International Law Commission that led to the 1978 Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties and the 1983 Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts. The less than enthusiastic reception that these Conventions had received from the international community seemed to condemn them into oblivion.
The extraordinary political developments in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, however, suddenly focused interest in these questions anew. As the theme of the Session indicates, it became possible to examine the question of `codification tested against these facts'.
Twenty-four participants from a French and an English section conducted this task with passion and talent. The present volume reproduces some of the best reports in an updated and technically harmonized form.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 20.
Succession Substitutes by Jeffrey Talpis.
In this course, Professor Talpis explores a subject not yet examined closely in private international law : the treatment of legally authorized methods for transferring property at death otherwise than by succession. These mechanisms, known generally in the common law as “will substitutes” but referred to in the present study as “succession substitutes,” are becoming more popular in both civil and common law jurisdictions. As such, effective solutions for resolving conflicts of laws in this area must be found. Given the paucity of guidance available in jurisprudence, doctrine and international instruments, Professor Talpis presents solutions for consideration.

L’efficacité des normes internationales concernant la situation des personnes privées dans les ordres juridiques internes par Evelyne Lagrange.
Le sort des normes internationales qui, en nombre croissant, intéressent la situation des personnes privées se joue d’abord dans les ordres juridiques internes des Etats. Tout en s’efforçant de restituer la variété des pratiques et l’enjeu des débats sur la légitimité de ces normes ou de leurs techniques d’application, ce cours met en lumière, d’une part, une tendance au recul des obstacles à leur efficacité, d’autre part, les potentialités que recèle un Etat constitutionnel ouvert pour une application de ces normes qui ménage les exigences de l’Etat de droit et du gouvernement démocratique.
The international community today confronts a dramatic paradox: we continue to produce more and more food, yet malnutrition, hunger and famine continue and even increase, placing millions of people in peril. At the same time, the more food is produced, the more risks of unsafe food are increasingly apparent and call to be addressed, partly through law.
We hope that this work may contribute to fill a major gap in the field: although food security constitutes a serious challenge on the world scale, one with many consequences, it has so far hardly been a subject of serious attention by scholars and researchers specialized in international law.

La communauté internationale est aujourd’hui confrontée à un grave paradoxe : alors que les quantités de denrées alimentaires produites ne cessent d’augmenter, la malnutrition, la faim et la famine gagnent du terrain et menacent la vie de millions de personnes. Plus la production s’intensifie, plus les risques liés à la sécurité des aliments s’aggravent et exigent d’être pris en charge (notamment) sur le plan juridique. En effet, bien que la sécurité alimentaire soit un problème lourd de conséquencesà l’échelle mondiale, elle n’a jusqu’à présent reçu que peu d’attention de la part des chercheurs et spécialistes du droit international. Nous espérons que ce travail contribuera à combler cette importante lacune.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 25.
International Economic Law: General Course of Public International Law, I. Seidl-Hohenveldern

I. Seidl-Hohenveldern, Professor at the Institute of International Law and International Relations in Vienna, devotes his general course of public international law to questions of international economic law, while touching upon all aspects of international economic law. In seventeen chapters, the author examines the question of the subjects of international economic law, sovereignty in international economic law, and the sources of international economic law. He pays attention to the State in international economic law (notably in relation to territory, nationality and governmental power), before looking successively at bilateral inter-State economic relations, the role of international organizations in international law, joint inter-State enterprises, the place of the individual in international economic law, the basic economic rights of States, human rights of economic value, the problems of State responsibility in international economic law, dispute settlement in international economic law, and economic warfare.

International Co-operation in Cultural Affairs, Liudmila Galenskaya

In this study on international co-operation in cultural affairs, Liudmila Galenskaya, Professor at the University of Leningrad, examines the definition of culture as given by the British Council: culture comprises arts, education, science and any social and intellectual interexchange. The author starts with presenting the legal regulation of international co-operation in the filed of culture (general and special principles, treaties, international organizations). Professor Galenskaya next examines the protection of cultural treasures in time of peace (international legal regulation of the protection of universal cultural heritage, legal protection of archaeological excavations, legal regulation concerning the struggle against the plundering of cultural treasures, and legislation by States on protection of cultural property), and finally discusses the legal problems of the protection of cultural treasures in time of war.
La méthode de la reconnaissance est-elle l’avenir du droit international privé ?, par P. Lagarde;

Democracy and International Law, by H. Charlesworth;
These lectures consider the way that international law defines and shapes ideas of democracy. This process is most obvious today in the context of post-conflict societies, but it also has a broader significance, affecting the whole fabric of international law. While there is an extensive literature on democracy in philosophy, political theory and international relations, there has been much less attention paid to the concept by international lawyers. The term is typically invoked as a self-evident good, and there has been little sustained analysis of the many meanings of democracy deployed in international law. The lectures argue that international lawyers have generally taken democracy to have a fixed form, associated with specific institutional practices and structures, and have been slow to recognize democratic forms outside these parameters. In other words, the discipline of international law has lost sight of why we might want democracy, assuming that it can be realized by a set of institutions.

L’exception d’ordre public et la régularité substantielle internationale de la loi étrangère par Pascal de Vareilles-Sommières
Si l’exception d’ordre public fait incontestablement partie des mécanismes les plus classiques du droit des conflits de lois, l’incertitude qu’on observe aujourd’hui encore sur sa place aussi bien que sur les conditions de son fonctionnement dans le raisonnement conflictualiste est le signe que sa véritable nature n’a pas été, pour lors, correctement élucidée. Le présent cours s’attache à démontrer qu’avec l’exception d’ordre public, le droit des conflits de lois accueille en son sein un mécanisme qui ressortit au droit et à la théorie de la régularité substantielle internationale des normes, et qui concerne plus particulièrement cette norme précise qu’est la loi étrangère, lorsque son application dans un Etat est envisagée dans un cas donné du fait de sa désignation par la règle de conflit. Il résulte de cette analyse une clarification du fonctionnement de l’exception d’ordre public, à la fois au plan des standards de l’ordre public à l’œuvre dans ce mécanisme (distinction par rapport à l’ordre public interne et aux lois de police) et au plan du contrôle de la conformité de la loi étrangère par rapport à ces standards (révélation d’une exception d’inopposabilité de la loi étrangère, allocation de l’effet positif habituellement imputé à l’exception, au mécanisme plus général de la vocation subsidiaire de la loi du for).

Significance of the History of the Law of Nations in Europe and East Asia by Masaharu Yanagihara
It was a commonly held view in the nineteenth century that international law was a concept developed only in Europe. This view has been widely criticized and now the idea is generally accepted that there are various types of “international law” in various periods and regions, even if “rudimentary” as seen from a contemporary viewpoint. After analysing the “reception” process of modern European international law in East Asia (China, Korea and Japan), this article focuses on the “reception” in Japan of two specific institutions, namely territory and international adjudication, both of which are particularly important concepts in modern European international law. The purpose of this article is not to put forward immediate and practical solutions to current issues, but to show the importance of historical investigations, which will contribute to tackling these important issues from various points of view in order to achieve a real breakthrough in our understanding.