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In the age of Open Innovation, it is vital for a country in the lower middle-income bracket to free itself from those constraints which seriously weaken the links between science and industry. A descriptive analysis of these linkages in a post-Soviet economy—Armenia—sheds some light on developments in policy-making which reinforce the interests of the private sector in the academic research and development (R&D) sphere. However, the way of thinking is still predominantly the ‘science-push’ model—which is far removed from the (horizontal) Triple Helix concept. According to empirical analysis, the scarcity of innovative companies is a serious handicap for industry-science collaboration and if the private sector has little demand for knowledge or science, then the innovation system cannot be effective. Very few higher education institutions (HEIs) or research institutes have devoted attention to the management of technology transfer, including necessary human resources. Human capacity problems, outdated infrastructure and an ageing workforce are significant barriers in scientific organisations. The autonomy of scientific organisations is an important asset which only half-exists in Armenia. On the escape route from a command economy, there are two potential traps on the way of autonomy: one occurs when the state overarches legal autonomy and creates a semi-autonomous situation; the other arises when the state is reluctant to regulate the framework for autonomous scientific organisations. Both exist in Armenia.

JEL Classification: 03; 05

Open Access
In: Triple Helix


这项研究为我们对匈牙利社会科学和人文科学博士学位对毕业生自身及其个人和社会环境的影响的现有知识做出了贡献。我们试图利用从电子调查和结构式访谈中所获得的新的经验发现理解和解释影响和不足。经验分析使我们能够从几个方面确定在用处方面的一定差异,比如特定的就业部门、流动性或实际影响水平。博士教育过程和博士学位本身对个人满意度和职业生涯的影响要大于对雇用组织的影响。在SSH领域的博士学位似乎比非学术工作更能带来学术领域的利益和影响 ——这种差异反映了匈牙利博士学位教育的学术取向。所有利益相关者都需要付出更大的努力来发展博士学位的“双重”形式,从而使整个匈牙利经济和社会受益。

Open Access
In: Triple Helix