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  • Author or Editor: Charles J. Adams x
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The state of happiness and that of wretchedness, respectively. References to joy and misery are frequent in the Qurʾān, are expressed either directly or by implication, and pertain both to this world and the next (see eschatology ). Pleasures of this world are neither condemned nor forbidden (q.v.; see also asceticism; abstinence; wealth; poverty and the poor; lawful and unlawful), but believers are to be mindful about the source of these pleasures (see gratitude and ingratitude ). Current wretchedness is not a sure sign of divine favor or disfavor (see blessing; grace; curse; reward and punishment; trial): the true believer, however, is to assist those who are less fortunate (see ethics and the qurʾān; community and society in the qurʾān). While the joys and miseries of the present life are not absent from the qurʾānic discourse, it is the states of joy and misery experienced in the next life upon which the Qurʾān places its strongest emphasis (see reward and punishment ).

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

Full physical and mental capacity. The notion of maturity (ashuddashudd iii, 330a , rushd) has reference to a person who has attained complete natural development, who is fully grown and capable of assuming the responsible management of his or her own affairs.

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

At least some of the negative reactions to and neglect of Wansbrough's work is due to the breadth of his erudition and the turgidity of his style. However, these do not detract from the intriguing methods and theories that he brings to the study of early Islamic texts. Wansbrough's literary method is as problematic for what he believes it suggests about the development of early Islam as for his assertion about what it cannot tell us. Two of his speculative historical reconstructions produced by this method deserve special note. His theory concerning the relatively late canonization of the Qur¸ān has certainly generated considerable opposition. His argument that Near Eastern monotheism played a much greater role in the formation of Islam accounts for the many affinities between Islam and Judaism and Christianity, but perhaps not for Islam's distinctiveness. These contributions, among others, are of such great significance, that no student of Islamic origins can afford to ignore them.

In: Method & Theory in the Study of Religion
In: Consciousness & Reality