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Fully grown larvae have been described of chalcidoids belonging to four genera, viz., Torymus Dalman (Torymidae), Aprostocetus Westwood (Eulophidae), Psilonotus Walker (Pteromalidae) and Eupelmus Dalman (Eupelmidae), all parasitoids of gall midges of the genus Semudobia Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), associated with fruit catkins of birch, Betula. Identification keys are provided for mature larvae as well as adults.

Phenology and host-parasitoid associations have been analysed from samples collected in The Netherlands at about sea level and from western Germany at an altitude of 760 m. Finally, possible patterns of co-speciation have been discussed for gall midge hosts and parasitoids.

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In: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie
In 1964-1965 Herbert Buhr published his ‘Bestimmungstabellen der Gallen (Zoo- und Phytocecidien) an Pflanzen Mittel- und Nordeuropas’. These keys were developed in the great tradition of cecidology in Europe. During the second half of the twentieth century a new generation of cecidologists expanded significantly our knowledge of plant galls and their distribution, about doubling the knowledge known before.

We concentrated on Buhr’s keys, but implemented additions, especially for Southern Europe, from Houard (1908-1913): Les zoocécidies des plantes d’Europe et du bassin de la Méditerranée. The nomenclature of as well gall inducers as host plants has been updated, and information about specific groups of gall inducers has been reviewed and new insights have been given by a team of specialists. To the proxy 9,000 galls and malformations described by Buhr and Houard, we added about 1,250 new galls which have been described in the more recent literature. Moreover, we collected distribution data for total Europe and, if available, adjacent areas.

VOLUME I: Abies-Myrrhis
VOLUME II: Narcissus-Zygophyllum
VOLUME III: References, Plates, Index
In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology