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In: The Dead Sea Scrolls at 60
Author: Joseph L. Angel

This article offers some new suggestions regarding the background and purpose of theBook of Giants in the light of recent scholarship emphasizing (1) the shared features andinterrelatedness of the Aramaic works discovered at Qumran and (2) the need to groundour understanding of early Jewish apocalyptic literature within the socio-political contextof Hellenistic imperial domination. While this intriguing composition has beenlocated correctly within the orbit of early Enochic tradition, the present study broadensthe lens in order to consider the significance of its striking parallels with Danielic tradition,beyond the well-known shared tradition of the throne theophany (4Q530 2 ii 16–20and Dan 7:9–10). Due attention is given both to the Danielic parallels and the transformationsin Giants vis-à-vis the Enochic tradition upon which it depends (the Book ofWatchers), which are interpreted in relation to recent research emphasizing that theearly Enochic and Danielic writings constituted expressions of resistance to imperialrule. In line with this literary and historical contextualization, the study argues for aparadigmatic interpretation of Giants, according to which the monstrous sons of thewatchers symbolize the violent, arrogant Hellenistic rulers of the author’s day.

In: Dead Sea Discoveries
In: HĀ-'ÎSH MŌSHE: Studies in Scriptural Interpretation in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature in Honor of Moshe J. Bernstein
Author: Joseph L. Angel
Departing from scholarship dedicated to the socio-historical realities of priesthood at Qumran, this book explores, in two parts, the most pervasive literary representations of priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls as a reflection of the religious worldview of the Qumran community and broader segments of Second Temple society. Part one compares depictions of otherworldly priesthood in non-sectarian and sectarian documents. Part two examines the historical and traditional roots of portrayals of messianic/eschatological priesthood. The study reveals a fresh understanding of the integral role of priestly imagery in the tension-filled eschatological identity of the Qumran community. It concludes with a consideration of the relationship of the evidence treated to the phenomenon of democratization of priestly holinesses in rabbinic Judaism and Christianity.
In: The Divine Courtroom in Comparative Perspective
In: Jewish Religious Architecture
In: From Scrolls to Traditions