Livy's books 21-44 contain roughly ninety battles, about half of which are mentioned only briefly, though usually including figures on casualties, captives and booty. Livy's full-scale narratives show differences in style, nature and content, including technical matters like the terminology used for units of the Roman army. Comparison between Livy's and Polybius' narratives on the battles of Cynoscephalae, the Great Plain and Zama show that Livy closely adhered to the terminology of his sources. Differences in terminology therefore reflect Livy's use of different sources. One set of Livian battle scenes is characterised by the numbering of legions and by details concerning allied units. Various elements indicate a late-annalistic origin for these battle narratives, identified here as Valerius Antias. Battle narratives of this type are limited to particular periods and regions: Italy during the Second Punic War; Spain and Gaul from the end of the Second Punic War onwards. This shows that Livy decided on this particular source for these particular theatres of war. Outside these parts of his account, Livy briefly summarised the battle narratives he found in his predecessor's work.
Roman wars, like those of later times, took place in a landscape - a landscape not only consisting of mountains, plains and rivers, but also of men tilling the soil, travelling across sea or land, or employing other means in their struggle for survival (and even happiness). This book undertakes to examine Roman wars in this context of the natural and human environment. Roman warfare is generally examined from the vierpoint of the ancient authors on whose narratives our understanding depends. As a consequence, however, Roman wars seem to have become events that took place on the pages of a book rather than in the environment of the Mediterranean world. The way Roman wars were fought was determined by the geography and climate of the Mediterranean peninsulas, by the ecological restraints on agriculture and transport, and by the economic and social structures of the society of which the armies were a significant part. This book relates warfare to one of the main conditions of survival: it examines on the one hand the food supply of the many thousands that manned the Roman armies, and on the other the impact of war on the food supply of those people not waging war.
Contents: PART ONE : SUPPLYING THE ROMAN ARMIES HERZ, P.: Die Logistik der kaiserzeitlichen Armee. Strukturelle Überlegungen. ERDKAMP, P.: The Corn Supply of the Roman Armies during the Principate (27 BC - 235 AD). CARRERAS MONTFORT, C.: The Roman military supply during the Principate. Transportation and staples. BLOIS, L. DE: Monetary policies, the soldiers’ pay and the onset of crisis in the first half of the third century AD. PART TWO : COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORT HAYNES, I.: Britain’s First Information Revolution. The Roman army and the transformation of economic life. KISSEL, Th.: Road-building as a munus publicum. KOLB, A.: Army and transport. PART THREE : THE ROMAN WEST: HISPANIA, BRITANNIA AND GERMANIA DAVIES. J.L.: Soldiers, peasants, industry and towns. The Roman army in Britain. A Welsh perspective. WHITTAKER, C.R.: Supplying the army. Evidence from Vindolanda. FUNARI, P.P.A.: The consumption of olive oil in Roman Britain and the role of the army. WIERSCHOWSKI, L.: Das römische Heer und die ökonomische Entwicklung Germaniens in den ersten Jahrzehnten des 1. Jahrhunderts. REMESAL RODRIGUEZ, J.: Baetica and Germania. Notes on the concept of ‘provincial interdependence’ in the Roman Empire. KONEN, H.: Die ökonomische Bedeutung der Provinzialflotten während der Zeit des Prinzipates. PART FOUR : NORTH AFRICA AND THE EAST MORIZOT, P.: Impact de l’armée romaine sur l’économie de l’Afrique. ROTH, J.: The army and the economy in Judaea and Palestine. ALSTON, R.: Managing the frontiers. Supplying the frontier troops in the sixth and seventh centuries.
From the days of the emperor Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14) the emperor and his court had a quintessential position within the Roman Empire. It is therefore clear that when the Impact of the Roman Empire is analysed, the impact of the emperor and those surrounding him is a central issue. The study of the representation and perception of Roman imperial power is a multifaceted area of research, which greatly helps our understanding of Roman society. In its successive parts this volume focuses on
1. The representation and perception of Roman imperial power through particular media: literary texts, inscriptions, coins, monuments, ornaments, and insignia, but also nicknames and death-bed scenes.
2. The representation and perception of Roman imperial power in the city of Rome and the various provinces.
3. The representation of power by individual emperors.