A number of ambiguous irregularities in sagittal otolith morphology of some beryciform fishes are discussed. It is suggested that the genera Adioryx, Holocentrus and Flammeo do not form a family unit together with the genera Myripristis and Plectrypops. It is therefore tentatively proposed, in agreement with other works, that the subfamilies Holocentrinae and Myripristinae be elevated to full family rank.
A new species of Decticinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), Anadrymadusa danensis n. sp. from Mt. Hermon (2000 m above sea level) is described. It has the characteristics of both Anadrymadusa and Exodrymadusa and is provisionally placed in genus Anadrymadusa.
Jeremy T. Lundholm
Green roofs and other constructed environments represent novel ecosystems, yet have potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation goals. Constructed ecosystems are intentionally managed to produce specific services, and thus could be viewed as highly artificial or controlled. Yet all constructed ecosystems exhibit spontaneous dynamics, as community structure changes due to internal or external ecological processes. While all green roofs have some element of design and human control over ecological trajectories, the level of ongoing management can vary greatly. I discuss “wildness” as a characteristic of green roofs in response to their spontaneous dynamics after initial setup, and their potential to provide ecosystem services related to human psychological well-being, aesthetics and habitat for biodiversity. This approach suggests new design possibilities in interaction with spontaneous ecosystem dynamics and highlights a need for greater ecological understanding of green roof systems.
ROGER T. LAMBERT
During reactivation of the roe deer blastocyst from embryonic diapause, the conceptus secretes a unique protein. The conceptuses were cultured individually in vitro with a radiolabel to establish de novo protein synthesis. Endometrial tissue from the same does was also cultured in vitro to establish radiolabel incorporation into endometrial secretions during blastocyst reactivation. Incorporation into secretory proteins from the blastocysts showed a significant increase during reactivation (p < 0.05) whereas incorporation into endometrial secretory proteins remained constant. The secretory proteins from the conceptus were identified using electrophoresis and fluorography as having the same molecular weight and pI as pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Fluorography clearly identified a single PAG with a molecular weight of 66 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.2. Previous research shows these blastocyst secretions target endometrial receptors. The current study demonstrates this is followed by a dramatic increase in concentrations of maternal estradiol in serum, from 1.07 ± 0.4 pg ml-1 during diapause to 49.17 ± 0.37 pg ml-1 at trophoblast elongation. Estradiol is the hormone responsible for triggering the endocrine events that lead to implantation. PAGs are released from trophoblast cells and bind to specific cell surface receptors on maternal target cells. The role for PAGs in trophoblast cells had not previously been defined. Data from this study demonstrate that embryonic programming initiates the transcription of specific genes in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, messenger RNA directs synthesis of PAG in the trophoblast, and the roe deer-specific PAG triggers the maternal response by targeting endometrial receptors.
P.M. BANARESCU, T.T. NALBANT and M. GOREN
The Noemacheilinae of Israel are revised and placed in two genera: Orthrias Jordan & Fowler (until now considered a synonym of Noemacheilus) and Nun, a new genus. The most common species in Israel is O. jordanicus, raised here to species status, and distinct from both O. angorae and O. insignis. Its geographical variation is analyzed; no subspecies are recognized. Sexual dimorphism is recorded for the first time in O. panthera and O. tigris. Three new species are described: O. dori, from the Bet She'an Valley, differing from O. jordanicus in having a much deeper body, an elevation at the nape and different colour pattern; O. pantheroides, from the Golan Heights, differing from O. panthera in having a more slender body, forked caudal fin and straight dorsal fin; O. israeliticus, from the Bet She'an Valley and Upper Galilee, differing from O. panthera and O. pantheroides in having an almost complete lateral line and a moderately developed dorsal keel on the caudal peduncle, and in colour pattern. The new genus Nun is proposed for Cobitis galilaeus Günther. This genus is characterized by six branched anal rays (as against five in all other Noemacheilinae, except the only African species of the subfamily), 9–11 branched dorsal rays, scaleless body, short lateral line, strongly developed processus dentiformis on the upper jaw and lack of sexual dimorphism.
JAMES T. POKINES and JULIAN C. KERBIS PETERHANS
Pellets from barn owls (Tyto alba) were sampled from a roost in the Negev Desert, Arava Valley, Israel. The recovered skeletal remains show little damage and a high degree of completeness. Our data suggest a significant negative correlation between average adult prey mass and the representation of certain skeletal elements. This correlation suggests that postcranial bones of larger prey are either left behind or are broken during consumption. This behavior pattern is an additional taphonomic signature left by barn owls upon small vertebrate assemblages, which may aid in paleoecological reconstructions.
E.T. KOUTRAKIS and A.I. SINIS
Growth rate and length—weight relationship of grey mullets (juveniles and adults) were studied in two Northeastern Greek wetlands from December 1988 to November 1990. The species studied were Chelon labrosus, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens. Back-calculated lengths-at-age showed no significant differences between sexes, but females lived longer and predominated among older fish. L. ramada had a higher growth rate in the lake; there was no difference for C. labrosus. The highest asymptotic length and weight were found for L. ramada and the lowest for L. saliens. The growth rate in grey mullets recorded in this study was higher than that reported by previous investigators for the same species in the west Mediterranean and the Atlantic coasts of Europe but slightly lower than in the south Mediterranean area.
MICHAEL R. PERRIN and COLLEEN T. DOWNS
Thermal characteristics of Acomys subspinosus, from a disjunct population in the southwestern Cape separated from the more widely-dispersed Acomys populations in the rest of Africa, and A.spinosissimus, which has a southern central distribution in Africa, were investigated and compared with other Acomys species. A. subspinosus has a higher-than-expected resting metabolic rate (RMR) for its body mass (2.587 ± 0.387 ml O2g−1 h−1; Wb = 32.3 ± 3.2 g) and a higher RMR than A. spinosissimus, which has a lower-than-expected RMR (1.634 ±0.182 ml O2 g−1 h−1; Wb = 27.0 ± 2.2 g) for its body mass. Each species has a high, narrow thermoneutral zone. Evaporative water loss (EWL) increased with ambient temperature in both species. However, A. subspinosus increased EWL at a higher rate, two times greater than that of A. spinosissimus. Temperature regulation and thermal conductance are compared and discussed.
O. Özaydin, T. KATAGAN and S. Ünsal
The echinoderms off the Turkish coasts have been studied between 1987 and 1993 with special emphasis on the Aegean Sea, and 47 species have been identified. One of these species, Brissopsis mediterranea, is recorded for the first time for the Aegean Sea. Leptometra phalangium, Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, and Pseudocnus koellikeri are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Tethyaster subinermis, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Odontaster mediterraneus, Ophiura albida, Ophiura texturata, Acrocnida brachiata, Asterina pancerii, Ophiactis virens, Centrostephanus longispinus, and Leptosynapta makrankyra are new records for the Mediterranean Coasts of Turkey, Brissopsis mediterranea, Acrocnida brachiata, Ophiactis virens, and Leptosynapta makrankyra are new records for Turkish waters.
JENS T. HØEG and ALEXEY V. RYBAKOV
We used SEM to investigate the cypris larvae in two species of parasitic barnacles, Polysaccus mediterraneus (Polysaccidae) from the eastern Mediterranean and Mycetomorpha vancouverensis (Mycetomorphidae) from the northern Pacific. Both species belong to the rhizocephalan suborder Akentrogonida and have morphologies of the adult parasite that greatly differ from that seen in the "classical" suborder Kentrogonida. In contrast, both P. mediterraneus and M. vancouverensis have cypris larvae that are remarkably similar to those of the Kentrogonida. For both species, similarities include the presence of aesthetascs on the third and fourth antennular segments and a spinous process distally on the attachment disc. For P. mediterraneus additional similarities to the kentrogonid cyprids are terminal pores in the lattice organs, frontal horn gland pores, frontal filaments, and four terminal setae on the fourth antennular segment. Cyprids of Mycetomorpha have, like most other Akentrogonida, either lost or specialized (terminal setae) these structures. Compared to the stereotyped life cycle found in the Kentrogonida, species of the Akentrogonida have a diversity of reproductive systems and advanced modes of metamorphosis, and this is reflected in specializations of their cyprids. The larval morphologies of P. mediterraneus and M. vancouverensis suggest that these two species have a sexual system and life cycle much closer to that seen in the Kentrogonida. Our results show that adult and larval morphologies are not closely correlated in the Rhizocephala, and provide important information for tracing how the Akentrogonida originated and radiated from within a paraphyletic Kentrogonida.