Adrienne Rich, one of the most accomplished American poets, lesbian feminists and critics, has published more than fifteen volumes of poetry and several collections of essays. A persisting feature in most of her works is the interweaving and interaction of poetry, history and politics. She was not so “political” in her early writings in 1950s as in her mid and late writings. Her radical lesbian-feminist voice was prevailing in her writings of 1970s like Diving into the Wreck (1973), Of Woman Born: Motherhood as an Experience and Institution (1976), and The Dream of a Common Language (1978). And in the 1980s, the central themes of her later poetry are the problems of national and ethnic identity (especially Jewishness), history, death and the passing of time. As a daughter of a Gentile mother and a Jewish father who is not so willing to acknowledge his Jewish identity, Rich’s poems and her own life experiences are mostly bound around conflicting themes of identity and assimilation. Indeed, she discusses the political, historical and biographical realities in her poems. Rich regrets the muteness of Jewishness in her family and she suffers from a sense of guilt and fury with the absence of Jewish education in her family. This article shows how Rich’s biographical experience, her Jewish roots and the Holocaust are displayed in two of her testimonial poems “Sources” and “Contradiction.”
This study uses an augmented dynamic gravity model to identify the main contributing factors influencing bilateral trade between China and 46 African countries in general and to test whether Sino-Africa bilateral trade is more than resource focused in particular. Natural resource was captured by “oil exports” and “ores & metal exports,” and the empirical analysis verifies only “oil” not “ores & metals” to significantly influence the growing Sino-Africa bilateral trade. Thus, the empirical result partially supports the widely held view that natural resources are critical to bilateral trade between China and African countries. However, it is not true that Chinese engagement in Africa is exclusively due to natural resources as always portrayed. Apart from the oil factor, some other significant factors for the growing bilateral trade are identified. The study indicates there is a huge opportunity and potential for rapid expansion of Sino-Africa bilateral trade that is mutually beneficial.
Over a considerable period of time, China has formulated a series of press freedom principles and guidelines for practice. These have their own distinctive features. China has also established its own legal system to regulate press freedom. By using the methods of literature analysis, text analysis, historical analysis and induction methods, this paper studies the origin, spiritual essence and core content of China’s press freedom. In addition, the current general framework and functions of China’s press laws, as well as the significance of press legislation, are discussed. The study finds that although China has established a relatively complete legal framework to govern the press, but with the rapid development of China’s social economy, the problems facing news dissemination will be more and more, the promulgation of specialized laws remains necessary and inevitable in the realization of the supervision of the press control. China needs to establish a perfect news law as soon as possible.