Among the differences between Song shamanism and that of earlier periods, dangerous spirits like epidemic gods, who were not in the state canon of sacrifices, now came to be primary objects of worship. Temples for such gods came to be set up throughout the land as places to do exorcisms and pray for good fortune. Other new phenomena are court cases and legends involving murder in order to create gods of this kind; affiliated temples for the worship of the same god in different places; god festivals involving translocal collection of funds and massive parades. Officials took a dim view of such events, and the edicts for the suppression of shamanism surpassed in rigor those of earlier times. This does not mean the influence of shamanism declined. On the contrary, it carried on “old customs” and invented “new fashions”.

in Modern Chinese Religion I (2 vols.)