Burundi covers major events in domestic politics, foreign policy, and socio-economic developments in 2021. In the first year of his presidency, Évariste Ndayishimiye introduced some encouraging measures to improve governance, and made timid concessions with regard to civil liberties. He also showed considerable openness to engaging with regional and international bilateral partners and multinational bodies. This markedly improved Burundi’s diplomatic relations – notably with neighbouring Rwanda – and its standing in the international arena. The repatriation of Burundian refugees further accelerated. Human rights violations and several armed attacks, however, continued to cause concern. Economic growth remained low and poverty levels rampant.