The karyotype of a new species of Paratelmatobius from the P. cardosoi group is described. As with other Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys karyotypes, Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi) shows a diploid number of 24 chromosomes, in addition to other similarities with the former karyotypes. The Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi) karyotype differs from that of P. cardosoi in the morphology of pair 4, the NOR location and the C-bands in pairs 3 and 8 (exclusive to Paratelmatobius sp.) and those of pairs 7 and 9 (exclusive to P. cardosoi). Both karyotypes also differ in the amount of heterochromatin in pair 1. The presence of interstitial heterochromatin in the long arm of pair 1 and the interstitial C-bands in both arms of chromosome 5 are apparently synapomorphic characters of P. cardosoi and Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi), since they are absent in the other Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys karyotypes. In Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi), the nucleolus organizer region is on the short arm of a small metacentric chromosome (pair 9), an arrangement similar to the NOR-bearing chromosome pair in the karyotype of P. poecilogaster and in karyotype II of Scythrophrys. A conspicuous heteromorphism unrelated to the sex determining mechanism was also observed and probably arose from a pericentric inversion.
Detailed characterizations of the karyotypes of the Brazilian leptodactylid frogs Pleurodema diplolistris, the only species of Pleurodema not studied cytogenetically so far, and Physalaemus nattereri, a species in the Ph. biligonigerus group, are presented. Both karyotypes had 2n = 22 and their chromosomes had a very similar morphology, except for pair 11, which was metacentric in Pl. diplolistris and telocentric in Ph. nattereri. The localization of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and heterochromatic bands allowed the differentiation of chromosomes that were morphologically indistinguishable between these species, such as pairs 1, 3 and 10, which showed interstitial C-bands in Ph. nattereri, and pair 8, that had an NOR and an adjacent C-band in Pl. diplolistris. Pair 8 also has NOR-bearing chromosomes in many other Pleurodema species. However, in these species, the NOR is located proximal to the centromere on the short arm, while in Pl. diplolistris it occurred distally on the long arm, a condition that may be considered a derived state. In Ph. nattereri, the NOR occurred on chromosome 11 and differed from the other species of the Ph. biligonigerus group. In contrast, C-banding revealed a heterochromatic block near the centromere on the short arm of pair 3, a characteristic common to all members of this group of Physalaemus.