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  • Author or Editor: Russell M. Church x
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The capacity for timed behavior is ubiquitous across the animal kingdom, making time perception an ideal topic of comparative research across human and nonhuman subjects. One of the many consequences of normal aging is a systematic decline in timing ability, often accompanied by a host of behavioral and biochemical changes in the brain. In this review, we describe some of these behavioral and biochemical changes in human and nonhuman subjects. Given the involvement of timing in higher-order cognitive processing, age-related changes in timing ability can act as a marker for cognitive decline in older adults. Finally, we offer a comparison between human and nonhuman timing through the perspective of Alzheimer’s disease. Taken together, we suggest that understanding timing functions and dysfunctions can improve theoretical accounts of cognitive aging and time perception, and the use of nonhuman subjects constitutes an integral part of this process.

Open Access
In: Timing & Time Perception

Classical conditioning is normally thought to strengthen associations between stimuli, and instrumental conditioning is thought to select responses. This difference has been used to account for the usual result that instrumental conditioning produces higher response rates than classical conditioning. The present experiment suggests that the comparison of instrumental and classical tasks has overlooked temporal cues that are often confounded with response contingency, and that the time cues exert a critical influence on response rate. When the two tasks are equated for temporal cues, the response rate of rats is similar in classical and instrumental tasks.

In: Timing & Time Perception