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Early Modern Transformations of a Scientist and his Science
All those interested in Copernicus, transformation of images, application of metaphors, history of science,
Visual Materials and the Vocabulary of Life-Likeness in Europe before 1800
The term ad vivum and its cognates al vivo, au vif, nach dem Leben and naer het leven have been applied since the thirteenth century to depictions designated as from, to or after (the) life. This book explores the issues raised by this vocabulary and related terminology with reference to visual materials produced and used in Europe before 1800, including portraiture, botanical, zoological, medical and topographical images, images of novel and newly discovered phenomena, and likenesses created through direct contact with the object being depicted. The designation ad vivum was not restricted to depictions made directly after the living model, and was often used to advertise the claim of an image to be a faithful likeness or a bearer of reliable information. Viewed as an assertion of accuracy or truth, ad vivum raises a number of fundamental questions in the area of early modern epistemology – questions about the value and prestige of visual and/or physical contiguity between image and original, about the kinds of information which were thought important and dependably transmissible in material form, and about the roles of the artist in that transmission. The recent interest of historians of early modern art in how value and meaning are produced and reproduced by visual materials which do not conform to the definition of art as unique invention, and of historians of science and of art in the visualisation of knowledge, has placed the questions surrounding ad vivum at the centre of their common concerns.

Contributors: Thomas Balfe, José Beltrán, Carla Benzan, Eleanor Chan, Robert Felfe, Mechthild Fend, Sachiko Kusukawa, Pieter Martens, Richard Mulholland, Noa Turel, Joanna Woodall, and Daan Van Heesch.
The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity into Early Modern Europe
The history of anatomy has been the subject of much recent scholarship. This volume shifts the focus to the many different ways in which the function of the body and its fluids were understood in pre-modern European thought. Contributors demonstrate how different academic disciplines can contribute to our understanding of ‘physiology’, and investigate the value of this category to pre-modern medicine.
The book contains individual essays on the wider issues raised by ‘physiology’, and detailed case studies that explore particular aspects and individuals. It will be useful to those working on medicine and the body in pre-modern cultures, in disciplines including classics, history of medicine and science, philosophy, and literature.

Contributors include Barbara Baert, Marlen Bidwell-Steiner, Véronique Boudon-Millot, Rainer Brömer, Elizabeth Craik, Tamás Demeter, Valeria Gavrylenko, Hans L. Haak, Mieneke te Hennepe, Sabine Kalff, Rina Knoeff, Sergius Kodera, Liesbet Kusters, Karine van ‘t Land, Tomas Macsotay, Michael McVaugh, Vivian Nutton, Barbara Orland, Jacomien Prins, Julius Rocca, Catrien Santing, Daniel Schäfer, Emma Sidgwick, Frank W. Stahnisch, Diana Stanciu, Michael Stolberg, Liba Taub, Fabio Tutrone, Katrien Vanagt, and Marion A. Wells.
Ideologies of Epistemology in Early Modern Europe
Historical research in previous decades has done a great deal to explore the social and political context of early modern natural and moral inquiries. Particularly since the publication of Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer’s Leviathan and the Air-Pump (1985) several studies have attributed epistemological stances and debates to clashes of political and theological ideologies. The present volume suggests that with an awareness of this context, it is now worth turning back to questions of the epistemic content itself. The contributors to the present collection were invited to explore how certain non-epistemic values had been turned into epistemic ones, how they had an effect on epistemic content, and eventually how they became ideologies of knowledge playing various roles in inquiry and application throughout early modern Europe.
Reading is apparently the greatest proof of refinement when viewed within the context of the social climb of the visual artist. It is only as reader that the artist can participate in the exclusive culture of clerics, humanists, rulers and courtiers. How did it come about that such a figure was integrated into the general history-of-knowledge context of research on the early modern period – in order to outline what artists’ reading specifically entails. Based on the history of knowledge, the contributions to this volume will then correspondingly elucidate various aspects of how, in the early modern period, artists’ education, knowledge, reading and libraries were related to the ways in which they presented themselves.The volume endeavours at long last to go beyond merely publishing inventories by investigating the problem of artists’ libraries with a fundamentally stronger emphasis on a discourse-analytical and history-of-knowledge approach.

Contributors include: Rainer Bayreuther, Maria Berbara, Cécile Beuzelin, Heiko Damm, Annette de Vries, Kelly Donahue-Wallace, Angela Dressen, Lex Hermans, Eckhard Leuschner, Alexander Marr, Martin Papenbrock, Tico Seifert, Eva Struhal, Michael Thimann, Huub van der Linden, Elsje van Kessel, Iris Wenderholm, and Claus Zittel.

The essays in the present volume attempt to historically reconstruct the various dependencies of philosophical and scientific knowledge of the material and technical culture of the early modern era and to draw systematic conclusions for the writing of early modern history of science. The divisive transformation of humanist scholarly culture, the Scholastic school philosophy, as well as magic in the form of a philosophy of practice is always associated with the work of Francis Bacon. All of these essays in this volume reflect the close interaction between technical models and knowledge production in natural philosophy, natural history and epistemology. It becomes clear that the technological developments of the early modern era cannot be adequately depicted in the form of a pure history of technology but rather only as part of a broader, cultural history of the sciences.

Contributors include: Todd Andrew Borlik, Arianna Borrelli, Thomas Brandstetter, Daniel Damler, Luisa Dolza, Moritz Epple, Berthold Heinecke, Dana Jalobeanu, Jürgen Klein, Staffan Müller-Wille, Romano Nanni, Jarmo Pulkkinen, Pablo Schneider, Andrés Vaccari, Benjamin Wardhaugh, Sophie Weeks, and Claus Zittel.
Medieval and Early Modern Theory and Practice
How were the relations among image, imagination and cognition characterized in the period 1500 – 1800? The authors of this volume argue that in those three centuries, a thoroughgoing transformation affected the following issues: (i) what it meant to understand phenomena in the natural world (cognition); (ii) how such phenomena were visualized or pictured (images, including novel types of diagrams, structural models, maps, etc.); and (iii) what role was attributed to the faculty of the imagination (psychology, creativity). The essays collected in this volume examine the new conceptions that were advanced and the novel ways of comprehending and expressing the relations among image, imagination, and cognition. They also shed light, from a variety of perspectives, on the elusive nexus of conceptions and practices.
Der traditionell behauptete Gattungsunterschied von wahrheitsorientierter philosophischer Prosa und fi ktionaler Literatur stellt sich nicht zuletzt dann als problematisch heraus, wenn Formen des Denkens und Erkennens aus der Betrachtung herausfallen, die sich keinem der beiden Modelle zuordnen lassen.
Das Konzept der »Literarischen Denkformen« soll dazu dienen, philosophische und literarische Modi des Erkennens gleichermaßen einzufangen. Die Leitfragen der vorliegenden Analysen sind somit, ob und auf welche Weise philosophische Texte auf »dichterische« Mittel angewiesen sind und inwiefern Literatur in Philosophie umschlägt, wenn man sich denkend in sie versenkt.
Orte und Räume des Wissens in Mittel- und Osteuropa
Eine andere Geschichte der Moderne ist zu entdecken und das überkommene Bild zu korrigieren.
Spricht man von der Moderne, so spricht man gemeinhin von den westlichen Metropolen, von Wien, Berlin, London oder Paris, nicht aber von Breslau, Budapest, Lemberg, Ljubljana oder Warschau. Gleichwohl haben sich auch in Mittel- und Osteuropa Künstler, Wissenschaftler und Philosophen zu Gruppen formiert, die einen dynamischen Wandel der jeweiligen Kultur vorantrieben. Das bisherige Gesamtbild der Moderne in Europa ist somit unvollständig, einseitig und zeugt von einer eigentümlichen Schräglage. Der Band versucht dieses Bild zu korrigieren, indem er anhand von exemplarischen Fallstudien solche Zentren in den Blick rückt und als regelrechte Laboratorien zu entdecken sucht. Bemerkenswerte Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Natur-, Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften und Kunst, aber auch der Austausch der Orte untereinander sind zu beobachten. Sie eröffnen eine andere Geschichte der Moderne und kartographieren das ästhetische und epistemologische Feld der Moderne neu.
Staunen indiziert eine (noch) nicht kategorisierbare Fremdheit und konstituiert damit eine Grenze des Verstehens und Wissens. Damit wird es zum Ausdruck einer semantischen Leere vor dem Fremden. Als Moment der verunsichernden Reflexion kann es so zum Stimulus eines Begehrens nach Grenzüberschreitung werden. Andererseits kann es Ausdruck eines Zustandes sein, in dem sich ein radikal anderes, nicht mehr an Körper und Verstand gebundenes Wissen ereignet. In den interdisziplinären Beiträgen des Bandes wird Staunen, historisch und diskursiv je unterschiedlich akzentuiert, als Phänomen der Grenze reflektiert, das dann im Kunstdiskurs, von der Antike bis heute, zu einem Moment des lustvollen Verharrens auf den Grenzen der Wahrnehmung, des Wissens und der Erfahrung werden kann.