Abraham Ibn Ezra (ca. 1089–ca. 1161) was born in Muslim Spain, but his extensive scientific corpus, dealing mainly with astrology and astronomy, was composed in Latin Europe and written almost exclusively in Hebrew. Recent work on Reshit Ḥokhmah (Beginning of Wisdom), an introduction to astrology that is considered to be the zenith of Ibn Ezra’s astrological work, revealed that at least one-fourth of this text consists of translations or close paraphrases from identifiable and available Arabic astrological and astronomical texts. Relying on these findings, this paper identifies the Arabic texts Ibn Ezra drew on, shows where their Hebrew translations were incorporated into Reshit Ḥokhmah, and then scrutinizes his translation methods.
The objective of the present study was to assess if Acrobeloides buetschlii, an opportunistic species common across many soils, can be employed as a suitable model for interactions between free-living soil nematodes and enteric human pathogens. Acrobeloides buetschlii was exposed to mCherry-tagged Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its vector potential was assessed. Salmonella cells were more readily ingested by the nematodes compared to E. coli O157:H7. Adult nematodes ingested more bacteria compared to juveniles. Salmonella survived internally for at least 7 days without affecting the viability of nematodes. Bacterial ingestion by A. buetschlii did not vary for three tested Salmonella serovars but was significantly lower for E. coli O157:H7. Considering the ubiquitous nature of pathogen and vector, these findings suggest that A. buetschlii can serve as a relevant model for studying nematode-Salmonella interactions in an agricultural setting and as potential transport for food-borne pathogens from soil to crops.